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UNITED STATES 
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K 
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _________________________ to                                                                   

 Commission file number: 001-36246
 Civeo Corporation
____________

 (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) 
British Columbia, Canada98-1253716
(State or other jurisdiction of(I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization)Identification No.)
  
Three Allen Center, 333 Clay Street, Suite 4980,
 
Houston, Texas
77002
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
713 510-2400
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Exchange on Which Registered
Common Shares, no par valueCVEONew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes                  ☐No ☒

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
YesNo

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
YesNo

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
YesNo



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "accelerated filer," "large accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
(Check one):

Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated Filer
 
Emerging Growth Company
 
   
Non-Accelerated Filer Smaller Reporting Company 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
YesNo

The aggregate market value of common shares held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, June 30, 2023, was $254,992,411.
 
The Registrant had 14,669,767 common shares outstanding as of February 23, 2024.
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant's Definitive Proxy Statement for the 2024 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders, which the registrant intends to file with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.



CIVEO CORPORATION
 
INDEX
 
  Page No.
 
   
Cybersecurity
   
  
Item 6.Reserved
Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections
   
  
   
  
   














 

i

PART I
 
This annual report on Form 10-K (annual report) contains certain “forward-looking statements" within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 (the Securities Act) and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the Exchange Act). Actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements as a result of a number of important factors. For a discussion of known material factors that could affect our results, refer to "Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements" below and “Part I, Item 1. Business,” “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors,” “Part II, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Part II, Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk” of this annual report.
 
In addition, in certain places in this annual report, we refer to reports published by third parties that purport to describe trends or developments in the energy industry. We do so for the convenience of our shareholders and in an effort to provide information available in the market that will assist our investors in a better understanding of the market environment in which we operate. However, we specifically disclaim any responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of such information and undertake no obligation to update such information.

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
 
We include the following cautionary statement to take advantage of the "safe harbor" provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 for any "forward-looking statement" made by us or on our behalf. All statements other than statements of historical facts included in this annual report are forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology including “may,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “continue,” “believe” or other similar words. Such statements may include statements regarding our future financial position, budgets, capital expenditures, projected costs, plans and objectives of management for future operations and possible future strategic transactions. Where any such forward-looking statement includes a statement of the assumptions or bases underlying such forward-looking statement, we caution that, while we believe such assumptions or bases to be reasonable and make them in good faith, assumed facts or bases almost always vary from actual results. The differences between assumed facts or bases and actual results can be material, depending upon the circumstances. The factors identified in this cautionary statement are important factors (but not necessarily all of the important factors) that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statement made by us, or on our behalf.
 
In any forward-looking statement where we, or our management, express an expectation or belief as to future results, such expectation or belief is expressed in good faith and believed to have a reasonable basis. However, there can be no assurance that the statement of expectation or belief will result or be achieved or accomplished. Taking this into account, the following are identified as important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statement made by, or on behalf of, us:

the level of supply and demand for oil, metallurgical coal, natural gas, iron ore and other minerals;

the level of activity, spending and natural resource development in Canada and Australia;

the level of demand, particularly from China, for coal and other natural resources from Australia;

the availability of attractive natural resource projects and assets, which may be affected by governmental actions, including changes in royalty or tax regimes, or environmental activists which may restrict drilling or development;

fluctuations in the current and future prices of oil, coal, natural gas, iron ore and other minerals;

failure by our customers to reach positive final investment decisions on, or otherwise not complete, projects with respect to which we have been awarded contracts to provide related hospitality services, which may cause those customers to terminate or postpone the contracts;

fluctuations in currency exchange rates;

general global economic conditions, such as the pace of global economic growth, a general slowdown in the global economy, supply chain disruptions, inflationary pressures and geopolitical events such as the ongoing Russia/Ukraine and Israel/Hamas conflicts;

1

changes in tax laws, tax treaties or tax regulations or the interpretation or enforcement thereof, including taxing authorities not agreeing with our assessment of the effects of such laws, treaties and regulations;

changes to government and environmental regulations, including climate change legislation and clean energy policies;

global weather conditions, natural disasters, global health concerns, and security threats, including cybersecurity incidents;

our ability to hire and retain skilled personnel;

the availability and cost of capital, including the ability to access the debt and equity markets;

our capital structure and our ability to return cash to shareholders through dividends or common share repurchases;

our ability to integrate acquisitions;

the development of new projects, including whether such projects will continue in the future; and

other factors identified in Item 1A. - "Risk Factors" of this annual report. 
 
Such risks and uncertainties are beyond our ability to control, and in many cases, we cannot predict the risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated by the forward-looking statements.
 
All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or to persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by reference to these risks and uncertainties. You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. Each forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date of the particular statement, and we do not undertake any obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements except as required by law.

2

ITEM 1. Business
 
Available Information
 
We maintain a website with the address of www.civeo.com. We are not including the information contained on our website as a part of, or incorporating it by reference into, this annual report. We file or furnish annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other documents with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC). We make available free of charge through our website our Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to these reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish such material to, the SEC. Also, the SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including us, and our filings are available on the Internet at www.sec.gov and free of charge upon written request to our corporate secretary at the address shown on the cover page of this annual report.

Our Company
 
We provide a suite of hospitality services for our guests in the natural resources industry, including lodging, catering and food service, housekeeping and maintenance at accommodation facilities that we or our customers own. In many cases, we provide services that support the day-to-day operations of these facilities, such as laundry, facility management and maintenance, water and wastewater treatment, power generation, communication systems, security and logistics. We also manage development activities for workforce accommodation facilities, including site selection, permitting, engineering and design, manufacturing management and site construction, along with providing hospitality services once the facility is constructed.

We primarily operate in some of the world’s most active oil, metallurgical (met) coal, liquefied natural gas (LNG) and iron ore producing regions, where, in many cases, traditional accommodations and related infrastructure often are not accessible, sufficient or cost effective. Our customers include major and independent oil companies, mining companies, engineering companies and oilfield and mining service companies. Our extensive suite of services enables us to meet the unique needs of each of our customers, while providing comfortable accommodations for their employees. Our customers are able to outsource their accommodations needs to a single supplier, maintaining employee welfare and satisfaction while focusing their investment on their core resource production efforts.

Our Company is built on the foundation of the following core values: Safety, Respect, Care, Excellence, Integrity and Collaboration. We put the safety of our employees and guests above all other concerns. We care about our people, guests, customers, communities and the environment, and we deliver excellent service with passion and pride. We act with integrity and collaborate with our people, communities, customers and partners. We take an active role working to minimize the environmental impact of our operations through a number of sustainable initiatives. We also have a focus on water conservation and utilize alternative water supply options such as recycling and rainwater collection and use. By building infrastructure such as wastewater treatment and water treatment facilities to recycle gray and black water on some of our sites, we are able to gain cost efficiencies as well as reduce the use of trucks related to water and wastewater hauling, which in turn, reduces our carbon footprint. In our Australian villages, we utilize passive-solar-design principles and smart-switching systems to reduce the need for electricity related to heating and cooling.

Our hospitality services span the lifecycle of customer projects, from the initial exploration and resource delineation to long-term production. Initially, as customers assess the resource potential and determine how they will develop it, they typically need our hospitality services for a limited number of employees for an uncertain duration of time. Our fleet of mobile assets is well-suited to support this initial exploratory stage as customers evaluate their development and construction plans. As development of the resource begins, we are able to serve their needs through either: (i) our fleet of mobile assets, particularly for shorter term projects such as pipeline construction and seasonal drilling programs, (ii) our scalable lodge or village model, or (iii) our integrated services model in customer-owned facilities. As projects grow and headcount needs increase, we are able to meet our customers growing needs at our accommodation facilities or with our hospitality services. By providing infrastructure support and hospitality services early in the project lifecycle, we are well positioned to continue to service our customers throughout the production phase, which typically lasts decades.
 
We own and operate 24 lodges and villages with approximately 26,000 rooms. We operate approximately 14,200 rooms owned by our customers. Additionally, in Canada, we also offer a fleet of mobile assets which serve shorter term projects, such as pipeline construction. We have long-standing relationships with many of our customers, many of whom are, or are affiliates of, large, investment-grade energy and mining companies.
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For the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, we generated $700.8 million, $697.1 million and $594.5 million in revenues and $39.5 million, $17.0 million and $6.1 million in operating income, respectively. The majority of our operations, assets and income are derived from the hospitality services provided at lodges and villages we own that have historically been contracted by our customers under multi-year, take-or-pay or exclusivity contracts. The hospitality services we provide at these facilities generated 63% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023. Important performance metrics include revenue related to our major properties, average daily rates and aggregate billed rooms. The table below summarizes these key statistics for the periods presented in this annual report.  
 Year Ended December 31,
 202320222021
 (In thousands, except for room counts and average daily rate)
Accommodation Revenue (1)
   
Canada$266,926 $279,455 $239,526 
Australia177,834 152,714 145,335 
Other11,205 3,058 5,437 
Total Accommodation Revenue$455,965 $435,227 $390,298 
Mobile Facility Rental Revenue (2)
   
Canada$61,899 $96,400 $62,856 
Other— 18,367 14,486 
Total Mobile Facility Rental Revenue$61,899 $114,767 $77,342 
Food Service and Other Services Revenue (3)
   
Canada$23,970 $20,142 $18,996 
Australia158,929 125,538 105,739 
Other42 90 50 
Total Food Service and Other Services Revenue$182,941 $145,770 $124,785 
Manufacturing Revenue (4)
   
Other$— $1,288 $2,038 
Total Manufacturing Revenue$— $1,288 $2,038 
Total Revenue$700,805 $697,052 $594,463 
Average Daily Rates for Lodges and Villages (5)
   
Canada$97 $100 $99 
Australia$75 $75 $79 
Total Billed Rooms for Lodges and Villages (6)
   
Canada2,710,784 2,759,521 2,404,880 
Australia2,371,763 2,024,068 1,846,882 
Average Exchange Rate   
Canadian dollar to U.S. dollar$0.74 $0.77 $0.80 
Australian dollar to U.S. dollar$0.66 $0.69 $0.75 

(1)Includes revenues related to lodge and village rooms and hospitality services for Civeo owned rooms for the periods presented.
(2)Includes revenues related to mobile assets for the periods presented.
(3)Includes revenues related to food service, laundry and water and wastewater treatment services, and facilities management for the periods presented.
(4)Includes revenues related to modular construction and manufacturing services for the periods presented. Civeo's remaining manufacturing operations in Louisiana were sold in the fourth quarter of 2022.
(5)Average daily rate is based on billed rooms and accommodation revenue for Civeo owned rooms during the periods presented.
(6)Billed rooms represents total billed days for Civeo owned rooms for the periods presented.
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Our History
 
Our history is one of identifying customer and market needs and developing economic solutions. Our historical experience in Canada began in small, mobile camps and evolved into owning and managing large scale remote accommodations. In Australia, our operations originated with a similar build-own-operate model as we operate in our Canadian lodges, growing up to our current eight owned villages. Since then and with the addition of an acquisition, we have evolved our service delivery to include operating customer-owned locations with the same hospitality services that we provide at our owned villages.

Our Canadian operations, founded in 1977, began by providing modular rental housing to energy customers, primarily supporting drilling rig crews in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. Over the next decade, we acquired a food service operation, enabling us to provide a more comprehensive accommodation solution. Through our experience with Syncrude’s Mildred Lake Village, a 2,100 bed facility that we operated and managed for them for nearly 20 years, we recognized the need for a premium, and more permanent, solution for workforce accommodations and hospitality services in the Canadian oil sands region. Pursuing this strategy, we opened PTI Lodge in 1998, one of the first independent lodging facilities in the region.

In 2018, we acquired Noralta Lodge Ltd. (Noralta), which provided remote hospitality services in Alberta, Canada (the Noralta Acquisition) through eleven lodges comprising over 5,700 owned rooms and 7,900 total rooms. Over time, we have developed into Canada’s largest third-party provider of accommodations and hospitality services in the Canadian oil sands region.

During 2015, we entered the Canadian LNG market with the construction of our Sitka Lodge. LNG Canada (LNGC), a joint venture among Shell Canada Energy, an affiliate of Shell plc (40 percent), and affiliates of PETRONAS, through its wholly-owned entity, North Montney LNG Limited Partnership (25 percent), PetroChina (15 percent), Mitsubishi Corporation (15 percent) and Korea Gas Corporation (5 percent), is currently constructing a liquefaction and export facility in Kitimat, British Columbia (Kitimat LNG Facility). The Kitimat LNG Facility is nearing completion and expected to be operational in 2024. Our Sitka Lodge is well positioned to serve construction activity at the Kitimat LNG facility, as well as portions of the related pipeline construction activity.

With the acquisition of our Australian business in December 2010, we began providing hospitality services to support the Australian natural resources industry through our villages located in Queensland, New South Wales and Western Australia. Like Canada, our Australian business has a long-history of taking care of customers in remote regions, beginning with our initial Moranbah Village in 1996, and has grown to become Australia’s largest independent provider of hospitality services for people working in remote locations. Our Australian business was the first to introduce resort-style accommodations to the mining sector, adding landscaping, outdoor kitchens, pools, fitness centers and, in some cases, taverns.

In 2019, we acquired Action Industrial Catering (Action), a provider of catering and managed services (which we refer to as our integrated services business) to the mining industry in Western Australia. The Action acquisition enhanced our service offering, expanded our geographic footprint, added exposure to new commodities in Australia and underlines our focus on pursuing growth opportunities that fit within our core competencies and strategic direction.

Our Customers
 
We provide our hospitality services to customers in the natural resources industry. Our scalable facilities provide long-term and temporary workforce accommodations where, in many cases, traditional accommodations and related infrastructure often are not accessible, sufficient or cost effective.

Through our wide range of hospitality services offerings, we are able to identify, solve and implement solutions and services that enhance the guest experience and reduce the customer’s total cost of housing a workforce in a remote operating location. In addition to lodging, catering and food service, housekeeping and maintenance at accommodation facilities that we or our customers own, our hospitality services have evolved to include fitness centers, water and wastewater treatment, laundry service and many other enhancements.

Our customers either own their accommodations assets or outsource them. Customers may choose to own their accommodations assets because (i) their natural resource project is the only source of demand for rooms in the region; (ii) they believe in the long-term nature of their resource project; and/or (iii) they desire to maintain control over the supply of rooms for their project. Where customers have chosen to own their accommodations assets, customers usually subcontract the
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management of the facility and the provision of the hospitality services to a third-party provider, such as Civeo through our integrated services model in customer-owned facilities.

Historically, Canadian oil sands developers and Australian mining companies built and owned the accommodations necessary to house their personnel in these remote regions because local labor and third-party owned rooms were not available. Over the past 20 years, and increasingly over the past 10 years, some customers have moved away from the insourcing business model for a portion of their accommodation needs as they recognize that owning accommodations and providing the related hospitality services are non-core investments for their business.

The accommodations outsourcing model is effective in regions in which multiple customers have on-going or prospective projects where third-party owned and operated accommodations assets can service multiple customers. This allows those customers to share some of the costs associated with their peak accommodations needs, including infrastructure (power, water, sewer and information technology) and central dining and recreation facilities. The Canadian oil sands region and the Queensland Bowen Basin region are two geographic areas that fit this market dynamic.
Initial demand for our hospitality services has historically been driven by our customers’ capital spending programs related to the construction and development of natural resource projects and associated infrastructure, as well as the exploration for oil and natural gas. Long-term demand for our services has been driven by natural resource production, maintenance and operation of those facilities as well as expansion of those sites. In general, industry capital spending programs are based on the outlook for commodity prices, production costs, economic growth, global commodity supply/demand, estimates of resource production and the expectations of our customers' shareholders. As a result, demand for our hospitality services is largely sensitive to expected commodity prices, principally related to oil, met coal, LNG and iron ore, and the resultant impact of these commodity price expectations on our customers’ spending. Other factors that can affect our business and financial results include the general global economic environment, including inflationary pressures, supply chain disruptions and labor shortages, volatility affecting the banking system and financial markets, availability of capital to the natural resource industry and regulatory changes in Canada, Australia and other markets, including governmental measures introduced to fight climate change.

We believe that our existing industry divides accommodations into two primary types: (i) lodges and villages and (ii) mobile assets. Civeo is principally focused on hospitality services at lodges and villages. Lodges and villages typically contain a larger number of rooms and require more time and capital to develop. These facilities typically have dining areas, meeting rooms, recreational facilities, pubs and taverns and landscaped grounds where weather permits. Lodges and villages are generally supported by multi-year, take-or-pay or exclusivity contracts. These facilities are designed to serve the long-term needs of customers in developing and producing their natural resource developments. Mobile assets are designed to follow customers’ activities and can be deployed rapidly to scale. They are often used to support conventional and in-situ drilling crews, as well as pipeline and seismic crews, and are contracted on a project-by-project, well-by-well or short-term basis. Oftentimes, customers will initially require mobile assets as they evaluate or initially develop a field or mine. Mobile asset projects can be dedicated and committed to a single customer or project or can serve multiple customers.

Our Competitors

The accommodation facilities market supporting the natural resource industry is segmented into competitors that serve components of the overall value chain, but very few offer the entire suite of hospitality services to customers. We estimate that customer-owned rooms represent over 50% of the market. Engineering firms such as Bechtel and Fluor often design accommodations facilities. Many public and private firms, such as ATCO Structures & Logistics Ltd. (ATCO), Dexterra Group Inc. (Dexterra), Alta-Fab Structures Ltd. (Alta-Fab) and Northgate Industries Ltd. (Northgate), build modular accommodations for sale. Dexterra, Black Diamond Group Limited (Black Diamond), ATCO, Royal Camp Services Ltd. and Target Hospitality primarily own and lease units to customers and, in some cases, provide facility management services, usually on a shorter-term basis with a more limited number of rooms, similar to our mobile assets business. Facility service companies, such as Aramark Corporation (Aramark), Sodexo Inc. (Sodexo), Compass Group PLC (Compass Group) and Cater Care, typically do not invest in and own the accommodations assets, but will provide hospitality services at third-party or customer-owned facilities.

Canada
 
Overview
 
During the year ended December 31, 2023, we generated approximately 50% of our revenue from our Canadian operations. We are western Canada’s largest provider of hospitality services for people working in remote locations. We provide our services through our lodges and mobile assets and at customer-owned locations. Our hospitality services support
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workforces in the Canadian LNG and oil sands markets and in a variety of oil and natural gas drilling, mining, pipeline and related natural resource applications.
 
Canadian Market
 
Demand for our hospitality services in the Canadian market is largely driven by customer capital spending, which is greatly influenced by current and future commodity prices.

In the Canadian oil sands region, demand is primarily influenced by the longer-term outlook for oil prices rather than current energy prices, given the multi-year production life of oil sands projects and the capital investment associated with development of such large-scale projects. Demand for our Canadian lodges is secondarily impacted by oil takeaway capacity which influences the net price our customers receive for their oil production.

Spending on the construction and development of new projects generally decreases as the outlook for oil prices decreases. However, spending on current operations and maintenance has historically reacted less quickly and less severely to changes in oil prices, as customers consider their cash operating costs, rather than overall full-cycle returns. Likewise, construction and expansion projects already underway have also been less sensitive to commodity price decreases, as customers generally focus on completion and incremental costs. Natural gas prices also influence oil sands activity as an input cost: as natural gas prices fluctuate, a significant component of our customers’ operating costs fluctuate as well.

Another factor that influences demand for our hospitality services in the Canadian oil sands region is the type of customer project we are supporting. Generally, Canadian customers require larger workforces during construction and expansionary periods, and therefore have higher demand for our rooms and services. Operational and maintenance headcounts are typically a fraction, 20% to 25%, of the headcounts experienced during construction.

In addition, proximity to customer activity and availability of customer-owned and competitor-owned rooms influences the rental demand of our rooms in the Canadian oil sands region. Typically, customers prefer to first utilize their own rooms on location, and if such customer-owned rooms are insufficient, customers prefer to avoid busing their workforces to housing more than 45 kilometers away.

The Athabasca oil sands are located in northern Alberta, an area that is very remote, with a limited local labor supply. Of Canada’s approximately 40 million residents, approximately half of the population lives in ten cities, while approximately 12% of the population lives in Alberta and less than 1% of the population lives within 100 kilometers of the oil sands activity. The local municipalities, of which Fort McMurray is the largest, have limited infrastructure to respond to workforce accommodation demands and are a significant driving distance from many of the oil sands projects. As such, the workforce accommodations market provides a cost-effective solution to the challenge of staffing large oil sands projects by sourcing labor largely throughout Canada to work on a rotational basis.

With respect to LNG and related pipeline activity in Canada, a number of multinational energy companies believe there is a potential to export LNG from Canada to meet the increasing global LNG demand, particularly in Asia. Currently, Western Canada does not have any operational LNG export facilities. The Kitimat LNG Facility is nearing completion and expected to be operational in 2024. The population of Kitimat and the surrounding area is approximately 9,000 people, whereas the LNGC project had almost 7,500 workers at its peak to construct the Kitimat LNG Facility. Accordingly, British Columbia LNG activity and related pipeline projects are a material driver of activity for our Sitka Lodge, as well as for our mobile assets, which are contracted to serve designated portions of the related pipeline construction activity. The majority of our contracted commitments associated with the Coastal GasLink Pipeline (CGL), the pipeline constructed to transport natural gas feedstock to LNGC, were completed in the fourth quarter of 2023. See "Canada-Canadian British Columbia Lodge" for more information.

LNG investment and activity in Western Canada, and related demand for hospitality services, is influenced by the global prices for LNG, which are largely tied to global oil prices, global supply/demand dynamics for LNG and Western Canadian wellhead prices for natural gas. Utilization of our existing Canadian capacity and any future expansions will largely depend on continued LNG and oil sands spending related to existing production, maintenance activities and potential future expansion of existing projects.

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Canadian Oil Sands Lodges
 
During the year ended December 31, 2023, activity in the Athabasca oil sands region generated approximately 67% of our Canadian revenue, or 34% of our consolidated revenue. The oil sands region continues to represent one of the world’s largest reserves for heavy oil. Our Wapasu Creek, Athabasca, Beaver River, Fort McMurray Village, Grey Wolf, Hudson, and Borealis lodges are focused on the northern region of the Athabasca oil sands, where customers primarily utilize surface mining to extract bitumen. Oil sands mining operations are characterized by large capital requirements, large reserves, larger personnel requirements, long-term reserve lives, very low exploration or reserve risk and relatively lower cash operating costs per barrel of bitumen produced. Our Conklin, Anzac, Red Earth and Wabasca lodges are focused in the southern portion of the region where we primarily serve in-situ operations and pipeline expansion and maintenance activity. In-situ methods are used on reserves that are too deep for traditional mining methods. In-situ technology typically injects steam or solvents into the deep oil sands in place to separate the bitumen from the sand and pumps it to the surface where it undergoes the same upgrading treatment as the mined bitumen. Reserves requiring in-situ techniques of extraction represent 80% of the established recoverable reserves in Alberta. In comparison to surface mining operations, in-situ operations generally require lower initial capital investment, fewer personnel but produce lower volumes of bitumen per development, with higher ongoing operating expense per barrel of bitumen produced.

Our oil sands lodges primarily support personnel for ongoing operations associated with surface mining and in-situ oil sands projects, as well as maintenance, turnaround and expansionary personnel, generally under short- and medium-term contracts.  Most of our oil sands lodges are located on land with leases obtained from the province of Alberta, with initial terms of ten years, or subleased from the resource developer. Our leases have expiration dates that range from 2024 to 2030. In recent years, we have successfully renewed or extended all expiring land leases which we have requested to renew or extend. We did not renew an expiring land lease associated with our McClelland Lake Lodge in Alberta, Canada, which expired in June 2023, in order to support our customer’s intent to mine the land where the lodge was located. Two of our oil sands properties are located on land which we own.

In order to operate a lodge in Canada, we are required to obtain a development permit from the regional municipality in which the lodge is located. The development permits are granted for a term of five years. Our development permits have expiration dates that range from 2024 to 2028. In recent years, we have successfully renewed or extended all expiring development permits. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors - Risks Related to Our Operations - The majority of our major Canadian lodges are located on land subject to leases. If we are unable to renew a lease or obtain permits necessary to operate on such leased land, we could be materially and adversely affected.” of this annual report for further information.

We provide a range of hospitality services at our lodges, including reservation management, check in and check out, food service, housekeeping and facilities management. Our lodge guests receive amenities similar to a full-service, urban hotel with our service offering a room and three meals a day. Our Wapasu Creek Lodge, with more than 5,000 rooms, is equivalent in size to the largest hotels in North America.

We provide our hospitality services at the lodges we own on a day rate or monthly rental basis, and our customers typically commit for short to long-term contracts (from several months up to several years). Most customers make a minimum nightly or monthly room commitment or an aggregate total room night commitment for the term of the contract, and the multi-year contracts typically provide for inflationary escalations in rates for increased food, labor and utilities costs.
 
Canadian British Columbia Lodge
 
As previously discussed, LNGC is currently constructing the Kitimat LNG Facility. British Columbia LNG activity and related pipeline projects are a material driver of activity for our Sitka Lodge, as well as for our mobile assets, which are contracted to serve designated portions of the related CGL pipeline construction activity. The majority of our contracted commitments associated with the CGL pipeline project were completed in the fourth quarter of 2023.

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Canadian Lodge Locations

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Rooms in our Canadian Lodges
   As of December 31,
 
Lodges
RegionExtraction
Technique
202320222021
Wapasu CreekN. Athabascamining/in-situ5,174 5,174 5,174 
AthabascaN. Athabascamining2,005 2,005 2,005 
McClelland Lake (2)
N. Athabascamining— 1,997 1,997 
Beaver RiverN. Athabascamining1,094 1,094 1,094 
Fort McMurray Village:
Black Bear
N. Athabascamining531 531 531 
BighornN. Athabascamining763 763 763 
LynxN. Athabascamining855 855 855 
WolverineN. Athabascamining855 855 855 
Borealis (1)
N. Athabascamining1,504 1,504 1,504 
Grey WolfN. Athabascamining946 946 946 
Hudson (1)
N. Athabascamining624 624 624 
Wabasca (1)
S. Athabascamining288 288 288 
Red Earth (1)
S. Athabascamining216 216 216 
Conklin (1)
S. Athabascamining/in-situ610 610 610 
Anzac (1)
S. Athabascain-situ526 526 526 
Subtotal – Oil Sands  15,991 17,988 17,988 
Sitka LodgeKitimat, BCLNG961 961 959 
Total Rooms  16,952 18,949 18,947 

(1)Currently closed as of December 31, 2023, due to lodge loading strategy, seasonal activity fluctuations or low activity level in the region. All closed lodges are periodically assessed for impairment at an asset group level, in accordance with United States (U.S.) generally accepted accounting principles. See Note 4 - Impairment Charges to the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this annual report for further discussion.
(2)The land lease associated with the asset expired in June 2023 and was not renewed. See "Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Overview and Macroeconomic Environment -McClelland Lake Lodge” of this annual report for additional information.
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Hospitality Services at Third-Party Owned Facilities

We also provide hospitality services at customer-owned facilities. Historically, this has been focused around natural resource production-related housing facilities that are owned by oil production companies. The facilities we manage typically range anywhere from 500 to 1,500 rooms. We customize our service offerings depending on our customer’s needs. Hospitality services can be performed on an end-to-end basis with food service, housekeeping, maintenance and utility services included or in segments such as food service only. Our focus on hospitality service contracts has allowed us to successfully pursue food service only opportunities. Due to our experience servicing customer-owned facilities, this business easily fits into our overall strategy.

Canadian Mobile Assets
Our mobile assets consist of modular, skid-mounted accommodations and central facilities that can be configured to serve a multitude of short- to medium-term accommodation needs. Dormitory, kitchen and ancillary assets can be rapidly mobilized and demobilized and are scalable to support 200 to 800 people in a single location. In addition to asset rental, we provide hospitality services such as food service and housekeeping, as well as other camp management services. Our mobile assets service the traditional oil and gas sector in Alberta and British Columbia and in-situ oil sands drilling and development operations in Alberta, as well as pipeline construction crews throughout Western Canada. These assets have also been used in the past in disaster relief efforts, the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic Games and a variety of other non-energy related projects.

Our mobile assets are rented on a per unit basis based on the number of days that a customer utilizes the asset, and, in some cases, involve standby rental arrangements. In cases where we provide food service or ancillary services, the contract can provide for per unit pricing or cost-plus pricing. Customers are also typically responsible for mobilization and demobilization costs. Our focus on hospitality service contracts has allowed us to successfully pursue food service only opportunities. Due to our experience servicing customer-owned facilities, this business easily fits into our overall strategy.

Australia
 
Overview
 
During the year ended December 31, 2023, we generated 48% of our revenue from our Australian operations. As of December 31, 2023, we owned 8,910 rooms across eight villages, of which 7,488 rooms service the Bowen Basin of central Queensland, one of the premier met coal basins in the world. We provide hospitality services on a day rate basis to mining and related service companies (including construction contractors), typically under short- and medium-term contracts (one to five years) with minimum nightly room commitments. In addition, we provide integrated services to the mining industry in Western Australia and South Australia.
 
Australian Market
 
As the largest contributor to exports and a major contributor to the country’s gross domestic product and government revenue, the Australian natural resources industry plays a vital role in the Australian economy. Australia has broad natural resources, including met and thermal coal, conventional and coal seam gas, base metals, iron ore, copper, lithium and precious metals such as gold. Australia is the largest exporter of met coal and iron ore in the world, in addition to being in close proximity to the largest steel producing countries in the world, primarily in Southeast Asia. The growth of Australian natural resource commodity exports over the last decade has been largely driven by strong Asian demand for met coal, iron ore and LNG. Australia’s resources are primarily located in remote regions of the country that lack infrastructure and resident labor forces to produce these resources, as the majority of Australia’s population is located on the east coast of the country. As a result, much of the natural resources labor force works on a rotational basis, which often requires a commute from a major city or the coast to a living arrangement near the resource projects. Consequently, there is substantial need for workforce accommodations and hospitality services to support resource production in the country. Workforce accommodations have historically been built and owned by the resource developer/owner, with third parties providing the hospitality and facility management services, typical of an insourcing business model.

Since 1996, our Australian business has sought to change the insourcing business model through its hospitality services offering, allowing customers to outsource their accommodations needs and focus their investments on resource production operations. Our Australian villages are strategically located in proximity to long-lived, low-cost mines operated by multiple investment-grade, international mining companies.  

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Our Australian villages support similar activities as our Canadian lodges for the natural resources industry in Australia. Our customers are typically developing and producing met coal, iron ore and other minerals which have resource lives that are measured in decades. As such, their spending levels tend to react similarly to commodity prices as the spending levels of our Canadian customers. Spending on producing assets is less sensitive to commodity price decreases in the short and medium term, assuming the projects remain cash flow positive. However, new construction projects and expansionary projects are typically canceled or deferred during periods of lower met coal and iron ore prices. New project construction activity typically requires larger workforces than day-to-day operations, where proximity and availability of customer-owned rooms influences the demand for our rooms and services. Demand for rooms at our Australian villages is primarily driven by production, maintenance and operational activities.

Our Australian operations primarily serve the Bowen Basin of Queensland and the Pilbara region in Western Australia. During the year ended December 31, 2023, our five villages in the Bowen Basin generated 47% of our Australian revenue, or 23% of our consolidated revenue. The Bowen Basin contains one of the largest coal deposits in Australia and is renowned for its premium met coal. In addition, we provide village operation and mine site cleaning services at eight customer locations in the Pilbara region, which is renowned for high grade iron ore production. Our villages and customer-owned locations are focused on the mines in the central portion of the Pilbara and Bowen Basins and are well positioned for the active mines in the region.

Beyond met coal and iron ore markets served in the Pilbara and Bowen Basins, we serve several other markets with three additional villages and ten customer-owned villages. At the end of 2023, we had two villages with over 1,000 combined rooms in the Gunnedah Basin, a thermal and met coal region in New South Wales. In Western Australia, we serve workforces related to LNG facilities operations on the Northwest Shelf through our Karratha village. In addition, we provide hospitality services in Western Australia and South Australia at ten customer-owned villages which support workforces related to nickel, copper, zinc, silver and gold production in the Goldfields-Esperance region, lithium production in the Pilbara region and copper, silver and gold in Western Australia and South Australia.

Australian Village Locations

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Owned Rooms in our Australian Villages
   As of December 31,
 
Villages
Resource
Basin
Commodity202320222021
CoppabellaBowenmet coal3,144 3,048 3,048 
DysartBowenmet coal1,798 1,798 1,798 
MoranbahBowenmet coal1,240 1,240 1,240 
MiddlemountBowenmet coal816 816 816 
BoggabriGunnedahmet/thermal coal622 622 622 
NarrabriGunnedahmet/thermal coal502 502 502 
NeboBowenmet coal490 490 490 
KarrathaPilbaraLNG, iron ore298 298 298 
Kambalda (1)
-gold, lithium— — 232 
Total Rooms  8,910 8,814 9,046 

(1) Sold in the third quarter of 2022.

Our Australian segment includes eight company-owned villages with 8,910 rooms as of December 31, 2023, which are strategically located near long-lived, low-cost mines operated by large mining companies. Our Australian business provides hospitality services to mining and related service companies under short- and medium-term contracts. Our growth plan for this part of our business continues to include enhanced occupancy and expansion of these properties where we believe there is durable long-term demand, as well as to provide hospitality services at customer-owned assets.

Our Coppabella, Dysart, Moranbah, Middlemount and Nebo villages are located in the Bowen Basin. Coppabella, at over 3,100 rooms, is our largest village and provides rooms and related hospitality services to a variety of customers. Each of these villages supports both operational workforce needs and contractor needs with resort style amenities, including swimming pools, gyms, a walking track and a tavern.

Our Narrabri and Boggabri villages in New South Wales provide rooms and related hospitality services to met and thermal coal mines and coal seam gas in the Gunnedah Basin. Our Karratha village, in Western Australia, services workforces related to LNG facilities operations on the Northwest Shelf.

Hospitality Services at Third-Party Owned Facilities

We also provide hospitality services at customer-owned villages to the mining industry in Western Australia. Historically, this has been focused around natural resource production-related village facilities that are primarily owned by iron ore production companies. We provide village hospitality services at 18 customer-owned locations, which represent over 12,600 rooms, primarily in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, one of the premier iron ore bodies in the world, and in the Goldfields-Esperance region of Western Australia. The facilities we manage range anywhere from 200 to over 1,900 rooms. We work together with our customers to customize our service offerings depending on our customer’s needs. Hospitality services can be performed on an end-to-end basis with catering and food service, housekeeping and site maintenance included or in segments such as food service only. Mine site cleaning services are also provided at some of our customer-owned locations.

Other

In the first quarter of 2023, we sold our accommodation assets in Louisiana. In addition, in the second half of 2022, we sold both our U.S. wellsite services and offshore businesses. Our remaining U.S. business consists of 235 rooms at our Killdeer Lodge, which supports completion activity in the Bakken. U.S. oil completion activity will continue to be impacted by oil prices, pipeline capacity, federal energy policies and availability of capital to support exploration and production completion plans.
 
Community Engagement
 
With a focus on long-term Indigenous community participation, our Canadian operations continue to work closely with a number of First Nations to develop mutually beneficial partnerships focused on revenue sharing, capacity building, employment and community investment and support. For over a decade, our Canadian operations supported Buffalo Metis Catering, a partnership with three Metis communities in the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo. Through this partnership, food and housekeeping services were delivered to three of our lodges. Beyond these services, this partnership provided a business incubator environment for a number of Metis business ventures. Our Canadian operations also procure services from a number
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of other First Nations-owned, Metis-owned and member-owned businesses including water hauling, snow removal and security services. In 2023, we purchased more than C$64.0 million in goods and services from the Indigenous business community, representing 27% of our total Canadian local spending, compared to C$66.2 million in goods and services from the Indigenous business community, representing 30% of our total Canadian local spending in 2022.

In 2021, the Fort McKay Metis community awarded Civeo with the inaugural 2020 Fort McKay Metis National President's Award. This award recognizes people or organizations who make a positive contribution to the well-being of the Metis community. In 2023 and in 2019, our Indigenous partnership initiatives earned Civeo a Gold level Progressive Aboriginal Relations (PAR) certification, by a jury comprised of Indigenous business people, which was supported by an unbiased, independent, third-party verification of our performance. In 2016, Civeo was awarded a Silver level PAR certification by the Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business (CCAB), demonstrating our commitment to the principles and practices established by the CCAB. In addition, in 2011 and 2012, we were recognized with awards from the Alberta Chamber of Commerce.

In 2018, Civeo entered into three new Indigenous partnerships in the oil sands region and two new partnerships in British Columbia and, in 2021, Civeo entered into a new partnership in British Columbia. Our partnerships in British Columbia are tied to accommodations contracts secured by Civeo for the Kitimat LNG Facility, the CGL pipeline project that originates in the North Montney region of north-east British Columbia and the Trans Mountain expansion project that twins an existing pipeline between Edmonton, Alberta and Burnaby, British Columbia. Beyond revenue sharing, these arrangements provide procurement, employment, training, and ancillary business opportunities for Indigenous owned businesses.

In Australia, our community relations program also aims to build and maintain a positive social license to operate by consulting and engaging with local regional communities from project inception, through development, construction and operations. This is a major advantage for our business model, as it facilitates consistent communication, engenders trust and builds relationships to last throughout the resource lifecycle. There is an emphasis on developing partnerships that create a long-term sustainable outcome to address specific community needs. To that end, we partner with local municipalities to improve and expand municipal infrastructure. These improvements provide necessary infrastructure, allowing the local communities an opportunity to expand and improve. We also provide support to local community groups through sponsorship and in-kind contributions to local events and initiatives. In addition, all of our food suppliers are Australian companies and, where possible, are based locally. Through our membership with Supply Nation, a non-profit organization committed to supplier diversity and Indigenous business development, we directed approximately A$12.3 million in 2023, compared to A$9.5 million in 2022, into Indigenous-owned and operated companies, and we are always looking for more opportunities to partner with these businesses.

In addition, we have four unincorporated joint venture partnerships with Indigenous landowners in Western Australia.  Under these agreements, we strive to develop the business capacity, project management skills and expertise of the Indigenous joint venture members and also provide local employment opportunities and training. One of the four unincorporated joint venture partnerships entitles Indigenous landowners to a profit distribution calculated in accordance with the unincorporated joint venture deeds. Additionally, three of the four remaining agreements incentivize the joint venture members via milestone payments for business objectives achieved.

Customers and Competitors
 
Our customers primarily operate in oil sands mining and development, drilling, exploration and extraction of oil and natural gas and coal and other extractive industries. To a lesser extent, we also support other activities, including pipeline construction, forestry and humanitarian aid. Our largest customers in 2023 were Suncor Energy and Fortescue Metals Group Ltd., who each accounted for more than 10% of our 2023 revenues.

Our primary competitors in Canada in lodge and mobile asset hospitality services include ATCO, Black Diamond, Dexterra and Clean Harbors, Inc. Some of these competitors have one or two locations similar to our oil sands lodges; however, based on our estimates, these competitors do not have the breadth or scale of our lodge operations. In Canada, we also compete against Aramark, Sodexo, Compass Group and Royal Camp Services for third-party facility management and hospitality services.

Our primary competitors in Australia for our village hospitality services are customer-owned and operated villages as well as Ausco Modular (a subsidiary of Modulaire Group), Fleetwood Corporation and smaller independent village operators. We compete against ISS, Sodexo, Compass Group, Northern Rise (as a division of Sirrom Corporation) and Cater Care for third-party facility management services.

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Historically, many customers have invested in their own accommodations.  We estimate that our existing and potential customers own approximately 50% of the rooms available in both the Canadian oil sands and the Australian coal mining regions.
 
Our Lodge and Village Contracts
 
During the year ended December 31, 2023, revenues from our lodges and villages represented over 63% of our consolidated revenues. Our contract terms generally provide for a daily rate for a reserved room and an occupied room rate that compensates us for hospitality services, including food service, housekeeping, utilities and maintenance for workers staying in the lodges and villages. In most multi-year contracts, our rates typically have annual escalation provisions to cover increases in labor and consumables costs over the contract term. In some contracts, customers have a contractual right to terminate, for reasons other than a breach, in exchange for a termination fee. Our customers typically contract for hospitality services under contracts with terms that most often range from several months to twelve years. The contracts expire throughout the year, and for many of the near-term expirations, we are in the process of negotiating extensions or new commitments. We cannot assure that we can renew existing contracts or obtain new business on the same or better terms, if at all.

Long-Term Take-or-Pay Contracts. Over the term of a take-or-pay contract, the customer commits to either a minimum number of rooms over a specified period or an aggregate number of room nights over the period, generally for terms greater than 12 months. During the year ended December 31, 2023, we billed approximately 2.6 million room nights under our long-term take-or-pay contracts, which included 0.6 million room nights in excess of the take-or-pay minimums. For the year ended December 31, 2024, we have commitments for 1.7 million room nights under our long-term take-or-pay contracts.

Short-Term Take-or-Pay Contracts. Customers may contract with us on a take-or-pay basis for less than 12 months, particularly for turnaround projects. Similar to long-term take-or-pay contracts, the customer commits to either a minimum number of rooms over a specified period or an aggregate number of room nights over the period. During the year ended December 31, 2023, we billed approximately 0.7 million room nights under our short-term take-or-pay contracts. For the year ended December 31, 2024, we have commitments for 0.1 million room nights under our short-term take-or-pay contracts.

Exclusivity Contracts. Over the term of an exclusivity contract, rather than receiving a minimum room commitment, we are the exclusive hospitality service provider for the customer's employees working on a specific project or projects. During the year ended December 31, 2023, we billed approximately 1.7 million room nights under our exclusivity contracts.

Casual / Walk-ins. Customers without long-term committed contracts may utilize lodge/village rooms via short-term bookings at lodge/village casual or agreed rates. During the year ended December 31, 2023, we billed approximately 0.1 million room nights to casual or walk-in customers.

Our Integrated Services Contracts

During the year ended December 31, 2023, revenues from our customer-owned locations represented 26% of our consolidated revenues. Our contract terms generally provide for a per guest per day rate for hospitality services, including food service and housekeeping. Similar to our owned lodge and villages contracts, in most multi-year contracts, our rates typically have annual escalation provisions to cover increases in labor and consumables costs over the contract term. Our customers typically contract for hospitality services under exclusivity contracts with terms that most often range from several months to five years. During the year ended December 31, 2023, we billed approximately 2.6 million room nights under our integrated services exclusivity contracts.
 
Seasonality of Operations
 
Our operations are directly affected by seasonal weather. A portion of our Canadian operations is conducted during the winter months when the winter freeze in remote regions is required for customers’ activity to occur. The spring thaw in these frontier regions restricts operations in the second quarter and adversely affects our customers' operations and our ability to provide services. Customers’ maintenance activities in the oil sands region, such as shutdown and turnaround activity, are typically performed in the second and third quarters annually. Our Canadian operations have also been impacted by forest fires and flooding in the past five years. During the Australian rainy season between November and April, our operations in Queensland and the northern parts of Western Australia can be affected by cyclones, monsoons and resultant flooding.

Human Capital Resources

We believe that our employees are one of our greatest resources. As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 1,600 full-time employees and approximately 1,000 hourly employees on a consolidated basis, 47% of whom are located in Canada,
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52% of whom are located in Australia and 1% of whom are located in the U.S. We were party to collective bargaining agreements covering 798 employees located in Canada and 1,020 employees located in Australia as of December 31, 2023.

As a company, we acknowledge the significance of a diverse workforce composed of individuals from various backgrounds, experiences, and perspectives. As many of our projects in Canada and Australia operate in traditional territories, we work closely with Indigenous communities to actively explore mutually beneficial investment, employment, and business opportunities. Our ability to cultivate and strengthen relationships with Indigenous communities is vital to the success of our business. In Canada, we are committed to expanding our Indigenous workforce to 10%. In 2023, we reached 7% Indigenous employment in Canada, excluding corporate staff. Approximately 6% of our total new hires in Canada were of Indigenous background during 2023.

We strive to offer competitive compensation, benefits and services that meet the needs of our employees, including short- and long-term incentive packages, various defined contribution plans, healthcare benefits, and wellness and employee assistance programs. Management monitors market compensation and benefits in order to attract, retain, and promote employees and reduce turnover and its associated costs.

Safety is a foundational pillar of Civeo’s corporate culture. We are committed to operating in a safe, secure and responsible manner for the benefit of our employees, customers and the communities we serve. Our commitment to safeguarding employees, contractors, and guests is demonstrated through our employee-named Making Zero Count initiative, which emphasizes the importance of eliminating harm and focuses on the processes required to achieve exceptional performance.

At Civeo, we believe that investing in our employees is fundamental to our success. Our commitment to training and career development enables employees to grow and advance in their careers while supporting our industry-leadership position. Committed to the continuous improvement of our team, we prioritize the development of our workforce’s technical and managerial competencies, with an emphasis on safety, customer service, and leadership development. Our learning and development program encompasses a range of learning modalities, including e-learning modules, in-person training sessions, nationally certified programs and licensed training provided by external partners.

Government Regulation

Our business is significantly affected by Canadian, Australian and U.S. laws and regulations at the federal, provincial, state and local levels relating to the oil, natural gas and mining industries, worker safety and environmental protection. Changes in these laws, including more stringent regulations and increased levels of enforcement of these laws and regulations, and the development of new laws and regulations could significantly affect our business and result in:

increased difficulty securing required permits, approvals, licenses or other authorizations issued by federal, provincial and local authorities needed to carry out our operations or our customers' operations;
increased compliance costs or additional operating restrictions associated with our operations or our customers’ operations;
other increased costs to our business or our customers’ business;
reduced demand for oil, natural gas, and other natural resources that our customers produce; and
reduced demand for our services.
  
To the extent that these laws and regulations impose more stringent requirements or increased costs or delays upon our customers in the performance of their operations, the resulting demand for our services by those customers may be adversely affected, which impact could be significant and long-lasting. Moreover, climate change laws or regulations could increase the cost of consuming, and thereby reduce demand for, oil and natural gas, which could reduce our customers’ demand for our services. We cannot predict changes in the level of enforcement of existing laws and regulations, how these laws and regulations may be interpreted or the effect changes in these laws and regulations may have on us or our customers or on our future operations or earnings. We also are not able to predict the extent to which new laws and regulations will be adopted or whether such new laws and regulations may impose more stringent or costly restrictions on our customers or our operations.
 
Our operations and the operations of our customers are subject to numerous stringent and comprehensive foreign, federal, provincial, state and local environmental laws and regulations governing the release or discharge of materials into the environment or otherwise relating to environmental protection. Numerous governmental agencies issue regulations to implement and enforce these laws, for which compliance is often costly yet critical. The violation of these laws and regulations may result in the denial or revocation of permits, issuance of corrective action orders, modification or cessation of operations,
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assessment of administrative and civil penalties, and even criminal prosecution. Although we do not anticipate that future compliance with existing environmental laws and regulations will have a material effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows over the short term, there can be no assurance that substantial costs for compliance or penalties for non-compliance with these existing requirements will not be incurred in the future by us or our customers. Moreover, it is possible that other developments, such as the adoption of stricter environmental laws, regulations and enforcement policies or more stringent enforcement of existing environmental laws and regulations, could result in additional costs or liabilities upon us or our customers that we cannot currently quantify.
 
Canadian Environmental Regulations

In Canada, the federal and provincial governments both have jurisdiction to regulate environmental matters. The provincial governments may also devolve jurisdiction over environmental matters to local governments. Our activities, or those of our customers, may be subject to environmental regulations imposed by these three levels of government. The following addresses updates to Canadian federal and provincial environmental regulations in 2023 that may affect us or our customers.

Air Quality Management

The Government of Canada (Canada), the Government of Alberta (Alberta), and the Government of British Columbia (British Columbia) each have frameworks for air quality management that may affect us and our customers.

At the federal level, the Reduction in the Release of Volatile Organic Compounds Regulations (Petroleum Sector) were published in 2020. Certain leak detection and repair provisions of the regulations took effect beginning in 2021 and the regulations set additional monitoring and requirements for operators in 2022 and 2023. These regulations require the implementation of comprehensive leak detection and repair (LDAR) programs as well as design and operating standards that prevent leaks at Canadian petroleum refineries, upgraders and certain petrochemical facilities and may affect our customers’ operations.

In addition to federal requirements, emissions from facilities in Alberta are subject to provincial regulation. The Alberta Energy Regulator (AER), which is responsible for regulating upstream oil and gas activity in Alberta, oversees compliance with Directive 60: Upstream Petroleum Industry Flaring, Incinerating, and Venting (Directive 60). This Directive applies to all upstream petroleum industry wells, facilities and pipelines as well as all oil sands schemes and operations with the exception of oil sands mining. Directive 60 requires operators to eliminate or reduce flaring associated with a wide variety of energy development activities and operations. In December 2018, the AER finalized amendments to its Directive 60 and Directive 017: Measurement Requirements for Oil and Gas Operations (Directive 17) as part of its role in implementing commitments from the Alberta government to reduce methane emissions from upstream oil and gas operations by 45% by 2025. These requirements, among other things, set limits on methane emissions from various facilities and require annual reporting of such emissions to the AER. The methane reduction requirements in Directive 60 took effect in 2020, additional vent gas limits took effect on January 1, 2022 and additional vent gas limits took effect on January 1, 2023. Meeting these regulatory requirements may result in additional costs or liabilities for our customers’ operations.

Similarly, emissions from facilities in British Columbia are also subject to provincial regulation. The British Columbia Energy Regulator (BCER) is responsible for regulating oil and gas activity in British Columbia. BCER oversees compliance with the Drilling and Production Regulation, which is one of British Columbia's primary regulatory instruments governing all aspects of oil and natural gas drilling and production. Effective January 1, 2020, that regulation was amended to require operators to eliminate or reduce natural gas leaking or venting associated with a wide variety of equipment and activities in energy development. Under this regulation, requirements are imposed for facilities detecting leaks and inspecting seals as well as restrictions or prohibitions on the types of equipment used for energy development. Some of these requirements took effect in 2022 and further requirements took effect on January 1, 2023. In addition, the BCER completed consultation in 2023 on proposed amendments to the Drilling and Production Regulation to maintain equivalency with federal requirements. Regulations designed to achieve a 45% reduction in methane emissions relative to 2014 levels are now in place. The BCER is currently conducting a regulatory review and engagement on the development of new regulations designed to achieve a 75% reduction in methane emissions from the oil and gas sector by 2030. Meeting these regulatory requirements may result in additional costs or liabilities for our customers’ operations.

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Environmental Assessment of Major Projects

In August 2019, the Canadian Environmental Impact Assessment Act, 2012 (CEAA 2012) was repealed and replaced with the federal Impact Assessment Act. The Impact Assessment Act and regulations made under that Act provide that certain new projects and expansions to existing projects – including oil sands mining and in situ projects, metallurgical mining projects, pipelines and other developments – will likely require a federal planning and assessment process to understand the environmental and social impacts of the project, as well as decision on whether those impacts are in the public interest.

One of the stated objectives of the Impact Assessment Act was to shorten review times for projects that are subject to review under that Act. However, concerns about lengthy reviews that require substantial information from project proponents remain even after the implementation of the Impact Assessment Act. Our customers operate in the aforementioned industries and could be considering future projects that would be subject to the Impact Assessment Act. To the extent our customers are required to comply with this legislation, it is possible that the uncertainty regarding cost and timelines for navigating the planning, assessment, and decision-making processes may negatively impact our customers' decisions on whether to proceed with those projects.

The Government of Alberta, supported by the governments of Ontario and Saskatchewan, has challenged the constitutionality of the Impact Assessment Act. In October of 2023, a majority of the Supreme Court of Canada (Court) concluded that a large portion of the regime created by the Impact Assessment Act was unconstitutional. The federal government subsequently issued interim guidance on the administration of the Impact Assessment Act and advised that it intended to amend the Impact Assessment Act to align with the Court's ruling. The federal government is expected to introduce legislation amending the Impact Assessment Act in 2024. As a result, there is significant uncertainty about the future application of Canada's federal environmental assessment legislation to our customers.

Climate Change Regulation

Scientific studies have suggested that emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), including carbon dioxide and methane, may be contributing to warming of the Earth’s atmosphere and other climatic changes. In December 2015, 195 nations, including Canada, Australia, and the U.S., adopted the Paris Agreement at the 21st “Conference of the Parties” to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (COP 21). The Paris Agreement does not set legally binding emission reduction targets but does set a goal of limiting global temperature increases to less than 2° Celsius. Canada announced that it is in favor of the decision of the COP 21 to endeavor to take action to further limit global temperature increases to less than 1.5° Celsius. The Paris Agreement also requires parties to submit Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) which set out their emission reduction targets and to renew these INDCs, with the goal of increasing the reductions, every five years. The Paris Agreement does not legally bind the parties to reach their INDCs, nor does it prescribe the measures that must take to achieve them. These measures are left to each participating nation. In September 2016, Canada's new federal government confirmed that it would not commit to a more ambitious INDC than the preceding Conservative federal government. The government maintained this approach in 2017 revisions to Canada’s INDC submission taking into account the federal Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change (PCF) adopted in 2016.

In March 2016, Canada and the Government of the U.S. jointly announced their intention to take action to reduce methane emissions from the oil and gas sector in an effort to meet their respective INDCs pursuant to the Paris Agreement. For its part, Canada announced its intention to reduce methane emissions from the oil and gas sector by 40-45 percent below 2012 levels by 2025. In 2018, the government introduced the Regulations Respecting Reduction in the Release of Methane and Certain Volatile Organic Compounds (Upstream Oil and Gas Sector) (Federal Methane Regulations) to implement its methane commitment. The Federal Methane Regulations impose various quantity-based limits on the venting of natural gas (or in the case of well completions involving hydraulic fracturing, a ban on such venting) and include associated conservation, measurement, inspection and corrective action requirements. Certain requirements of the Federal Methane Regulations came into effect January 1, 2020, and other emissions limits are now in place for certain equipment installed on or after January 1, 2023.

In March 2022, the federal government began consultation on a proposed strategy to expand coverage and increase stringency of methane reduction obligations in the oil and gas sector specifically, and is expected to issue draft regulations in 2023. In December 2023, the federal government published proposed amendments to the Federal Methane Regulations for public comment. The proposed amendments are intended to reduce methane emissions in Canada's upstream oil and gas sector by at least 75% below 2012 levels by 2030. To achieve that objective, the proposed amendments would prohibit venting natural gas to the environment, subject to limited exceptions. They would also impose requirements on hydrocarbon combustion systems and measures to reduce fugitive methane emissions. Draft regulations are expected to be published in 2024. These requirements may result in additional costs or liabilities for our customers’ operations.

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In 2018, the federal government enacted the Greenhouse Gas Pollution Pricing Act (GGPPA), which came into force on January 1, 2019. This regime has two parts: an output-based pricing system for large industry and a regulatory fuel charge. This system serves as a "backstop" and applies in provinces and territories that request it and in those that do not have their own emissions pricing systems in place that meet the federal standards. This ensures that there is a uniform price on emissions across the country. The backstop price under the GGPPA increased to $50 per tonne of CO2e in 2022. As of January 1, 2024, the backstop price is $65 per tonne of CO2e. That price will increase to $80 in April 2024 and the current government plan is to continue increasing that price by $15 each year until it reaches $170/tonne of CO2e in 2030.

On November 19, 2020, the federal government introduced the Canadian Net-Zero Emissions Accountability Act in Parliament. That Act was passed by Parliament and received Royal Assent on June 29, 2021 and binds the Government of Canada to a process intended to help Canada achieve net-zero emissions by 2050. It also establishes rolling five-year emissions-reduction targets and requires the government to develop plans to reach each target. The federal government is required to support those efforts by creating a Net-Zero Advisory Body and by publishing annual reports that describe how departments and Crown corporations are considering the financial risks and opportunities of climate change in their decision-making.

At the 26th Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP 26), held in Glasgow between October 31 and November 13, 2021, Canada presented a strengthened climate plan and committed to an enhanced emissions reduction target of between 40 and 45 percent below 2005 levels by 2030. Following a 2021 federal election, the Government of Canada delivered a new Throne Speech in November 2021 which reiterated its intent to take action that would "go further, faster" to fight climate change. Among other things, the federal government pledged to cap and cut oil and gas sector emissions while accelerating on the path to 100 percent net zero electricity. In December 2023, the federal government announced that it intended to implement a national cap-and-trade system for oil and gas emissions in Canada and published a draft regulatory framework for public comment. Draft regulations are expected to be published in 2024. As currently proposed, the cap-and-trade system would apply to liquified natural gas producers as well as producers in the conventional oil, offshore, oil sands and natural gas production and processing subsectors. The proposed cap-and-trade system would set oil and gas sector emissions limits, to be phased in between 2026 and 2030. Producers would be required to reduce their emissions or purchase "allowances" from other facilities that have reduced their emissions. These requirements, if implemented, may result in additional costs or liabilities for our customers’ operations.

In addition, the federal government amended the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (“CEPA”) in 2023. In particular, the preamble to CEPA now recognizes that every individual in Canada has a right to a healthy environment. The Government of Canada must now take into consideration this right, including the principles of environmental justice, when making decisions under CEPA, including its regulation of greenhouse gas emissions in Canada. Within two years, the Government of Canada must develop an implementation framework on how this right will be upheld while administering CEPA. Until that framework is developed, there is significant uncertainty regarding how these changes to CEPA will be implemented, and their potential to affect our customers' operations.

In Alberta, GHGs are regulated pursuant to the Emissions Management and Climate Resilience Act and the Technology Innovation and Emissions Reduction Regulation (TIER Regulation). In December 2019, the TIER Regulation was deemed equivalent to the backstop prescribed by the federal GGPPA, meaning that facilities within Alberta subject to the TIER Regulation are not subject to the full costs of complying with the GGPPA. The TIER Regulation generally applies to Alberta-based facilities that emit over 100,000 tonnes of CO2e per year. Under the TIER Regulation, emissions from each facility are compared to either an industry-wide benchmark or a facility-specific benchmark which effectively permits facilities to emit GHGs up to a certain amount without being subject to the provincial carbon price. Those benchmarks “tighten” resulting in more onerous compliance costs, every year. Facilities with emissions that exceed the industry-wide benchmark or facility-specific benchmark, as applicable, must rely on one or more of the compliance options established by the TIER Regulation, such as purchase credits or offsets for each tonne of CO2e in excess of their limits. The Alberta government issues an order every year setting the price to acquire credits, which effectively dictates compliance costs. In January 2023, the Alberta government published amendments to the TIER Regulation, including increases to the carbon price and increases to annual benchmark tightening rates. These changes were implemented in order to ensure that the TIER Regulation maintains equivalency with the framework established by GGPPA. Increases to the cost of TIER Regulation credits and annual benchmark tightening rates may result in additional costs or liabilities for our customers’ operations. In addition, similar increases in stringency of provincial GHG regulatory frameworks within British Columbia and Saskatchewan may result in additional costs or liabilities for our customers’ operations.

The Canadian Species at Risk Act is intended to prevent wildlife species in Canada from disappearing and to provide for the recovery of wildlife species that no longer exist in the wild in Canada, or that are endangered or threatened as a result of human activity, and to manage species of special concern to prevent them from becoming endangered or threatened. The designation of previously unprotected species as threatened or endangered in areas of Canada where our customers’ oil and natural gas exploration and production operations are conducted could cause them to incur increased costs arising from species
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protection measures or could result in limitations on their exploration and production activities, which could have an adverse impact on demand for our services.

Woodland caribou habitat covers large portions of several Canadian provinces including British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan. Many of our customers have existing or proposed developments in or near woodland caribou habitat. Conservation measures imposed by the federal or provincial governments could affect the business of our customers with operations near caribou habitat.

Abandonment and Remediation of Oil and Gas Infrastructure

As the lifecycle regulator for energy resource activities, the AER oversees closure requirements, including the abandonment and reclamation of wells, well sites, facilities, facility sites, and pipelines. Historically, the AER discharged this role through its Liability Management Rating Program (AB LMR Program). The AB LMR Program relied on the ratio of a company's assets and liabilities (Liability Management Ratio or LMR) to assess whether the company would be able to address closure obligations. Where a company's liabilities exceeded their assets (resulting in a LMR of less than 1.0), the AER could require the company to post security to bring the ratio to 1.0. The AB LMR Program was developed during a period of rapid growth in the province when companies were focused on well and infrastructure expansion. In recent years, it became clear that the LMR Program needed to be updated to reflect declining production and aging infrastructure.

As a result of the Supreme Court of Canada's decision in Orphan Well Association v Grant Thornton (also known as the Redwater decision), receivers and trustees can no longer avoid the AER's legislated authority to impose abandonment orders against licensees or to require a licensee to pay a security deposit before approving a license transfer when any such licensee is subject to formal insolvency proceedings. This means that insolvent estates can no longer disclaim assets that have reached the end of their productive lives (and therefore represent a net liability) in order to deal primarily with the remaining productive and valuable assets without first satisfying any abandonment and reclamation obligations associated with the insolvent estate's assets. In April 2020, the Government of Alberta passed the Liabilities Management Statutes Amendment Act, which places the burden of a defunct licensee's abandonment and reclamation obligations first on the defunct licensee's working interest partners, and second, the AER may order the orphan fund (Orphan Fund) established under the Oil and Gas Conservation Act (OGCA) to assume care and custody and accelerate the clean-up of wells or sites which do not have a responsible owner. These changes will come into force on proclamation.

As a result of the changing landscape and new direction from the Redwater decision, in July 2020, the Government of Alberta began implementing changes to its liability management policy. In particular, in July 2020, the Province released a new Liability Management Framework (AB LMF) which includes a series of mechanisms and requirements to improve and expedite reclamation efforts and to require industry to better manage clean-up of oil and gas wells, pipelines and facilities. Notably, the AB LMF provided policy direction allowing the AER to take "Licensee Special Action" to assist operators in managing their assets and maintaining operations under certain circumstances.

The Government of Alberta followed the announcement of the AB LMF with amendments to the Oil and Gas Conservation Rules and the Pipeline Rules in late 2020. The changes to these rules fall into three broad categories: (i) they introduce "closure" as a defined term, which captures both abandonment and reclamation; (ii) they expand the AER's authority to initiate and supervise closure; and (iii) they permit qualifying third parties on whose property wells or facilities are located to request that licensees prepare a closure plan.

The AB LMF provided Government of Alberta policy direction on managing energy sector closure requirements. The AER implements and administers that policy through directives. In April 2021, the AER made changes to Directive 67: Eligibility Requirements for Acquiring and Holding Energy Licenses and Approvals (Directive 67) in order to increase scrutiny the AER applies to ensure that authorization for oil and gas development is only granted to responsible parties. Those changes include additional requirements for industry to provide updated financial information when making certain applications to the AER and throughout the energy development lifecycle. As a result of the changes to Directive 67, the AER may revoke or restrict a company's eligibility to hold AER licenses if the AER determines that the licensee poses an "unreasonable risk", taking into account a broad range of financial and operational considerations.

In December 2021, the AER published a new Directive 88: Licensee Life-Cycle Management (Directive 88) and supporting guidance information to further support implementing the AB LMF. Among other things, Directive 88 establishes the AER's authority to conduct a holistic licensee assessment to inform regulatory decisions about a given licensee, including by conducting a "Licensee Capability Assessment." Directive 88 also establishes the Licensee Management Program contemplated in the AB LMF which enables the AER to proactively monitor licensees to identify those at risk of not meeting
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their regulatory obligations and to use appropriate regulatory tools to address that risk. Finally, Directive 88 establishes the Inventory Reduction Program and allows the AER to set licensee-specific and industry-wide closure targets.

Complementing the AB LMF Program and associated directives, Alberta's OGCA establishes an orphan fund (Orphan Fund) to help pay the costs to suspend, abandon, remediate and reclaim a well, facility or pipeline included in the AB LMR Program if a licensee or working interest participant becomes insolvent or is unable to meet its obligations. The Orphan Fund was originally conceived to be bankrolled by licensees in the AB LMR Program who contribute to a levy administered by the AER. However, given the increase in orphaned oil and natural gas assets, the Government of Alberta has loaned the Orphan Fund approximately $335 million to carry out abandonment and reclamation work, of which, $121 million had been paid as of May 2023. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Government of Alberta also covered $113 million in levy payments that licensees would otherwise have owed to the Orphan Fund, corresponding to the levy payments due for the first six months of the AER's fiscal year. A separate orphan levy applies to persons holding licenses for large facilities. Collectively, these programs, the AB LMF, and associated directives are designed to minimize the risk to the Orphan Fund posed by the unfunded liabilities of licensees and to prevent the taxpayers of Alberta from incurring costs to suspend, abandon, remediate and reclaim wells, facilities or pipelines.

These and any other changes to the AER's approach to manages closure requirements for energy resource activities may result in additional costs or liabilities for our customers’ operations.

In British Columbia the BCER’s Comprehensive Liability Management Plan addresses liability management, improving the rate of inactive site restoration, and addressing orphan sites. The BCER uses a Liability Management Rating (LMR) program to evaluate each company’s ability to pay for site restoration. The BCER addresses dormant sites through the Dormancy and Shutdown Regulation, which ensures oil and natural gas producers responsibly bring their energy resource activities to regulatory closure within a reasonable time frame. The Dormant Sites Program is used to identify permit holders that are subject to the dormant site provisions of the Energy Resource Activities Act and the Dormancy and Shutdown Regulation. The regulation sets timelines for restoration and imposes requirements for decommissioning, site assessment, remediation and restoration. Like in Alberta, British Columbia’s Orphan Site Reclamation Fund is a levy on oil and natural gas producers that is used to pay the cost of restoring orphan sites in BC. If or when applicable to operations, any changes to the BCER’s approach to managing dormancy and closure requirements for energy resource activities may result in additional costs or liabilities for our customers’ operations.

Australian Environmental Regulations
 
Our Australian segment is regulated by statutory environmental and land use controls at the federal, state and territory and local government levels which may result in land use approval, regulation of operations and compliance risk. These controls include: land use and urban design controls; controls to protect Australia’s natural environment, iconic places and Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander native title and heritage; the regulation of hard and liquid waste, including the requirement for trade waste and/or wastewater permits or licenses; the regulation of water, noise, heat, and atmospheric gases emissions; the regulation of the production, transport and storage of dangerous and hazardous materials (including asbestos); the regulation of pollution and site contamination and requirements to notify of and clean-up environmental contamination.

Federal Controls

At a federal level, the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) is Australia’s key piece of environmental legislation. The EPBC Act protects of matters of national environmental significance, for example, threatened species and communities (e.g. Koalas), migratory species, Ramsar wetlands and world heritage properties. Activities that have the potential to impact matters protected by the EPBC Act trigger referral to the federal government for assessment and approval.

In October 2020, the findings of an independent review of the EPBC Act (Independent Review) recommended significant reforms including (but not limited to) introduction of legally binding ‘National Environmental Standards’, a ‘climate change’ referral trigger, measures to harness and recognize the importance of indigenous knowledge, stronger compliance and enforcement powers, proposals for revised bilateral agreements with the States and Territories to streamline the assessment and approval process of some activities regulated by the EPBC Act and criminal penalties for offenses relating to emissions-intensive actions.

In December 2022 the federal government announced its response to the Independent Review. This response proposes various changes to the EPBC Act in line with the Independent Review, for example, the introduction of ‘National Environmental Standards’, creation of a federal Environmental Protection Agency and the introduction of a requirement to
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achieve ‘net positive’ outcomes. Several bills to effect some of the recommended reforms are currently before Parliament and a comprehensive draft bill is expected to be introduced in 2024 together with a draft of the proposed National Environmental Standards. Notably, the federal government is not presently proposing to introduce the climate change referral trigger recommended by the Independent Review.

If any of the recommended reforms take effect, our obligations under, and compliance with, the EPBC Act ought to be reviewed. However, its implications for our Australian operations are not anticipated to be significant.

Ongoing awareness of these reforms is important as the legislative and policy changes may affect our customers’ operations and have impacts on the non-renewable resources sector generally.

There is an increasing emphasis from regulators on sustainability and energy efficiency in business operations. Federal requirements are now in place for the mandatory disclosure of energy performance under building rating schemes. These schemes require the tracking of specific environmental performance factors. Carbon reporting requirements currently exist for corporations which meet a reporting threshold for greenhouse gases or energy use or production for a reporting (financial) year under federal legislation.

From July 1, 2023, new obligations and reporting requirements took effect with respect to the ‘Safeguard Mechanism’ – Australia’s policy for reducing emissions from facilities that emit more than 100,000t CO2-e per financial year that has been in place since 2016. These reforms are intended to assist Australia meet its emissions reduction targets of 43% below 2005 levels by 2030 and may affect large scale industry customers.

The federal government has also proposed further climate-related disclosure requirements that are anticipated to take effect (for some companies) from mid-2024. These proposed disclosure requirements will oblige companies to disclose various climate-related information, including information about their greenhouse gas emissions, climate-related targets, offset contributions, transition plans, and information about strategies, plans and governance procedures/controls in place to monitor and manage climate-related risks and opportunities. If these reforms become law, we will have corporate reporting requirements in relation to these climate related matters, likely to commence in 2026.

State and Territory Controls

At a State and Territory level, our operations are authorized and regulated by layers of planning and environmental approvals. Queensland, New South Wales and Western Australia all have multiple acts regulating matters of the environment, conservation, vegetation management and protection of aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander use rights which are administered by each States’ independent environment protection regulator (e.g. Queensland’s Department of Environment, Science and Innovation). If amendments are made to the EPBC Act to effect new bilateral agreements, the States and Territories will likely be given further power to assess and approve certain actions regulated the EPBC Act.

Under state law, some specified activities, for example, sewage treatment works at our sites, may require regulation by way of environmental approvals. Such approvals may also impose monitoring and reporting obligations on the holder as well as obligations to rehabilitate the subject site once the regulated activity has ceased.

We must ensure that all necessary approvals, permits and licenses are in place to authorize our operations and that the conditions of those approvals, permits and licenses are complied with until the relevant operations cease (and are cleaned-up if necessary). Where approvals are not held and/or complied with, the operation may be unlawful and subject to penalties, including stop-work orders, remediation orders and financial penalties. Our Australian operations continue to comply with our existing approvals, permits and licenses.

We have a positive obligation under state legislation to notify of an incident causing (or threatening) serious or material environmental harm. Examples of notifiable environment harm include effluent overflow, chemical leaks and chemical fires. Failure to discharge this obligation can attract significant sanctions and financial penalties.

Local Government

At a local government level, our operations are subject to, and regulated by, local laws administered by local government authorities. Local laws may cover matters such as operation of certain activities, management of vegetation and natural and anthropogenic hazards, actionable nuisance and fencing. Local laws differ between each local government area and we must understand and operate within these laws as they apply to our operations Australia wide.

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U.S. Environmental Regulations
 
The Clean Water Act, as amended, and analogous state laws impose restrictions and strict controls regarding the discharge of pollutants into state waters or waters of the U.S. The discharge of pollutants into jurisdictional waters is prohibited unless the discharge is permitted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or authorized state agencies. In addition, the Clean Water Act and analogous state laws provide for administrative, civil and criminal penalties for unauthorized discharges and, together with the Oil Pollution Act of 1999, as amended, require the development and implementation of spill prevention and response plans and impose liability for the remedial costs and associated damages arising out of any unauthorized discharges.

GHG Emissions

The EPA has adopted rules requiring the monitoring and reporting of GHG emissions from specified large GHG emission sources in the U.S., including, offshore and onshore oil and natural gas production facilities, on an annual basis. In December 2023, the EPA issued a final rule updating New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and providing emission guidelines to reduce methane and other pollutants from the oil and gas industry.

While the U.S. Congress has, from time to time, considered legislation to reduce emissions of GHGs, in recent years, there has not been significant activity in the form of adopted legislation to reduce GHG emissions at the federal level. In the absence of federal climate legislation in the U.S., a number of state and regional efforts have emerged that are aimed at tracking and/or reducing GHG emissions, including cap and trade programs that typically require major sources of GHG emissions, such as electric power plants, to acquire and surrender emission allowances in return for emitting those GHGs. The U.S. participated in the creation of the Paris Agreement at COP 21 in December 2015. Although the U.S. had withdrawn from the Paris Agreement, in November 2020, the Biden administration officially reentered the U.S. into the agreement in February 2021. Under the Paris Agreement, the Biden Administration has committed the U.S. to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 50% to 52% from 2005 levels by 2030. In November 2021, the U.S. and other countries entered into the Glasgow Climate Pact, which includes a range of measures designed to address climate change, including but not limited to the phase-out of fossil fuel subsidies, reducing methane emissions 30% by 2030, and cooperating toward the advancement of the development of clean energy.

Although it is not possible at this time to predict how legislation or new regulations that may be adopted to address GHG emissions would impact our business, any such future laws and regulations could require us or our customers to incur increased operating costs, such as costs to purchase and operate emissions control systems, to acquire emission allowances or comply with new regulatory or reporting requirements.  Any such legislation or regulatory programs could also increase the cost of consuming, and thereby reduce demand for oil and natural gas, which could reduce our customers’ demand for our services. Consequently, legislation and regulatory programs to reduce GHG emissions could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Other Environmental Regulations

Our operations, as well as the operations of our customers, are also subject to various laws and regulations addressing the management, disposal and releases of regulated substances, including the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended (RCRA), the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA), also known as the Superfund law, and comparable state laws. Under such laws, we could be required to undertake response or corrective measures, which could include removal of previously disposed substances and wastes, cleanup of contaminated property or performance of remedial operations to prevent future contamination.

The federal Endangered Species Act, as amended (ESA), restricts activities in the U.S. that may affect endangered or threatened species or their habitats. If endangered species are located in areas of the U.S. where our oil and natural gas exploration and production customers operate, such operations could be prohibited or delayed or expensive mitigation may be required. The designation of previously unprotected species as threatened or endangered or designation of previously unprotected habitat as critical habitat in areas of the U.S. where our customers’ oil and natural gas exploration and production operations are conducted could cause them to incur increased costs arising from species protection measures or could result in limitations on their exploration and production activities, which could have an adverse impact on demand for our services.
Hydraulic fracturing is an important and common practice in the oil and gas industry. The process involves the injection of water, sand and chemicals under pressure into a formation to fracture the surrounding rock and stimulate production of hydrocarbons. Certain environmental advocacy groups and regulatory agencies have suggested that additional federal, state and local laws and regulations may be needed to more closely regulate the hydraulic fracturing process, and have made claims that
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hydraulic fracturing techniques are harmful to surface water and drinking water resources and may cause earthquakes. Various governmental entities (within and outside the U.S.) are in the process of studying, restricting, regulating or preparing to regulate hydraulic fracturing, directly or indirectly.
In the U.S., the EPA already regulates certain hydraulic fracturing operations involving diesel under the Underground Injection Control program of the federal Safe Drinking Water Act. In January 2021, President Biden announced a moratorium on new oil and gas leasing on federal lands and offshore waters pending completion of a comprehensive review and reconsideration of federal oil and gas permitting and leasing practices. In August 2022, a federal district judge in Louisiana permanently enjoined the moratorium in the 13 states that filed a lawsuit against the action.

States and local governments may also seek to limit hydraulic fracturing activities through time, place, and manner restrictions on operations or ban the process altogether. The adoption of legislation or regulatory programs that restrict hydraulic fracturing could adversely affect, reduce or delay well drilling and completion activities, increase the cost of drilling and production, and thereby reduce demand for our services. There also exists the potential for the Biden Administration to pursue new or amended laws, regulations, executive actions and other regulatory initiatives that could impose more stringent restrictions on hydraulic fracturing, including potential restrictions on hydraulic fracturing by banning new oil and gas permitting on federal lands. While our operations are not directly affected by these actions, their impact on our oil and natural gas exploration and production customers could result in a decreased demand for the services that we provide.

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ITEM 1A. Risk Factors
 
We are subject to various risks and hazards due to the nature of the business activities we conduct. The risks summarized and discussed below, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and the price of our shares, are not the only risks we face. We may experience additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or, as a result of developments occurring in the future, conditions that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

Risks in this section are grouped by category. Many risks affect more than one category and the risks are not in order of significance or probability of occurrence because they have been grouped by categories.

Summary of Risk Factors:

Set forth below is a summary of the risks more fully described in this Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This summary should be read in connection with the Risk Factors more fully described below and should not be relied upon as an exhaustive summary of the material risks facing our business.

Risks Related to Our Macroeconomic-Business Environment
Certain of our customers’ spending may be directly, and our business may be indirectly, affected by (i) volatile or low oil, metallurgical (met) coal, natural gas or iron ore prices; (ii) increasing production costs; or (iii) unsuccessful exploration results.
The effects of public health crises, pandemics and epidemics may materially affect how we and our customers are operating our and their businesses.

Risks Related to Our Customers
Our customers and their operations are exposed to a number of unique operating risks and challenges.
We depend on several significant customers.
Our failure to retain our current customers, renew our existing customer contracts and obtain new customer contracts, or the termination of existing contracts, could adversely affect our business.
Adverse events in areas where we operate could negatively impact our business, and our geographic concentration could limit the number of customers seeking our services.
We may be adversely affected if customers reduce their accommodations outsourcing.
Risks Related to Our Operations
We operate in a highly competitive industry, and if we fail to compete effectively, our business will suffer.
Our operations may suffer due to over-capacity of certain types of accommodations assets in certain regions.
Increased operating costs and limited cost recovery through pricing or contract terms may constrain our ability to make a profit.
Employee and customer labor problems could adversely affect us.
A failure to maintain food safety or comply with government regulations related to food and beverages or serving alcoholic beverages may subject us to liability.
The majority of our major Canadian lodges are located on land subject to leases.
We are susceptible to seasonal earnings volatility due to adverse weather conditions in our regions of operations.
Failure to maintain positive relationships with the Indigenous people in the areas where we operate could adversely affect our business.
Development of permanent infrastructure in the areas where we locate our assets could negatively impact our business.
We may be subject to risks associated with the transportation, installation and demobilization of mobile accommodations.
Our business could be negatively impacted by security threats, including cybersecurity threats and other disruptions.
Our business could be disrupted by any failure of our information technology systems.
Loss of key members of our management could adversely affect our business.

Financial/Accounting Risks
Currency exchange rate fluctuations could adversely affect our U.S. dollar reported results of operations and financial position.
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We may not have adequate insurance for potential liabilities and insurance may not cover certain liabilities.
The cyclical nature of our business and a severe prolonged downturn has, and could in the future, negatively affect the value of our long-lived assets and our goodwill.
Our inability to control the inherent risks of identifying, acquiring and integrating businesses that we may acquire could adversely affect our operations.
Our indebtedness could restrict our operations and make us more vulnerable to adverse economic conditions.

Legal and Regulatory Risks
We do business in Canada and Australia, whose political and regulatory environments and compliance regimes differ from those in the U.S.
We are subject to extensive and costly environmental laws and regulations.
We may be exposed to certain regulatory and financial risks related to climate change and other environmental, social and governance (ESG) related matters.

Risks Related to Our Common Shares
The market price and trading volume of our common shares may be volatile.
The payment of dividends and repurchases of our common shares are each within the discretion of our Board of Directors, and there is no guarantee that we will pay any dividends or repurchase common shares in the future or at levels anticipated by our shareholders.
We are governed by the corporate laws in British Columbia, Canada.
Provisions contained in our articles and applicable Canadian and British Columbia laws could discourage a take-over attempt.
The enforcement of civil liabilities against Civeo may be more difficult.

Risks Related to Our Structure
We are subject to various Canadian, Australian and other taxes.
We remain subject to changes in tax law (in various jurisdictions) and other factors that could impact our effective tax rate.
Future potential changes to U.S. tax laws could result in Civeo being treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Risk Factors:

Risks Related to Our Macroeconomic Business Environment

Certain of our customers’ spending may be directly, and our business may be indirectly, affected by (i) volatile or low oil, metallurgical (met) coal, natural gas or iron ore prices; (ii) increasing production costs; or (iii) unsuccessful exploration results.

Demand for our services is sensitive to the level of exploration, development and production activity of, and the corresponding capital spending by, natural resources companies. Our business typically supports customer projects that are capital intensive and require several years to generate first production, with production lasting for decades. The economic analyses conducted by our customers in Canadian oil sands, Australian mining and global liquefied natural gas (LNG) investment areas have historically assumed a relatively conservative longer-term price outlook for production from such projects to determine economic viability. The willingness of natural resources companies to explore, develop and produce depends largely upon the availability of attractive resource prospects and the prevailing view of future commodity prices, and expenditures by our natural resources customers generally lag changes in commodity prices by at least three to six months.

Prices for oil, met coal, LNG, iron ore and other natural resources are subject to large fluctuations in response to changes in global supply of and demand for these commodities. Other factors beyond our control that affect commodity prices include:

worldwide economic activity including growth in and demand for oil, coal and other natural resources, particularly from developing countries, such as China and India;
the level of activity, spending and natural resource developments in Australia and Canada;
the level of global oil and gas exploration and production and the impact of government regulation or Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries Plus (OPEC+) policies that impact production levels and oil prices;
the availability of transportation infrastructure and refining capacity for oil, natural gas, LNG and coal;
global weather conditions, natural disasters and global health concerns;
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geopolitical events such as the ongoing Russia/Ukraine and Israel/Hamas conflicts;
global reduction in demand for fossil fuels due to international efforts to address climate change;
rapid technological change and the timing and extent of energy resource development, including hydraulic fracturing of horizontally drilled wells in shale discoveries and LNG;
development, commercialization, availability and economics of alternative fuels; and
government, tax and environmental regulation, including climate change legislation and clean energy policies.

As of February 23, 2024, the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) price was $77.54 and the Western Canadian Select (WCS) price was $58.60, resulting in a discount (WCS Differential) at which WCS trades relative to WTI of $18.94. Should the price of WTI decline or the WCS discount to WTI widen further, our oil sands customers may delay or eliminate additional investments, reduce their spending in the oil sands region or curtail or shut-down existing operations.

The effects of public health crises, pandemics and epidemics may materially affect how we and our customers are operating our and their businesses.

Public health crises, pandemics and epidemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, have adversely impacted and may in the future adversely impact, worldwide economic activity, including the operations of natural resources companies in Canada, Australia and the U.S. and the worldwide demand for oil and natural gas. Other effects of such public health crises, pandemics and epidemics include significant volatility and disruption of the global financial markets; continued volatility of commodity prices and related uncertainties around OPEC+ production; disruption of operations resulting from decreased customer demand and labor shortages; supply chain disruptions or equipment shortages; reduced capital spending by oil and gas companies; and employee impacts from illness, travel restrictions, including border closures, and other community response measures.

The extent to which our business operations and financial results may be affected by such public health crises, pandemics and epidemics depends on various factors beyond our control, such as the duration, severity and sustained geographic impact of the outbreak; the impact and effectiveness of governmental actions to contain and treat such outbreaks, including government policies and restrictions; vaccine hesitancy, vaccine mandates, and voluntary or mandatory quarantines; and the global response surrounding such uncertainties.

Risks Related to Our Customers

Our customers and their operations are exposed to a number of unique operating risks and challenges which could also adversely affect us.

We could be materially adversely affected by disruptions to our customers’ operations. The price of and demand for natural resources produced by our customers may impact their desire and/or ability to continue producing existing projects or start new projects. Customers may also experience unexpected problems, higher costs or delays in commencing, developing or producing a project. Additionally, the willingness of natural resources companies to explore, develop and produce may be impacted by pressures to limit increases in capital spending generally and on met coal and hydrocarbons in particular, as well as by cost overruns on past and current projects, which could adversely impact demand for our services. Operating risks and challenges our customers face, which may ultimately affect their need for the accommodations and services we provide, include:

commodity price volatility;
unforeseen and adverse geological, geotechnical, seismic and mining conditions;
lack of availability or failure of the required infrastructure, including sourcing sufficient water or power, necessary to maintain or to expand their operations;
the breakdown or shortage of equipment and labor necessary to maintain their operations;
capital project cost overruns and cost inflation;
risks associated with the natural resources industry being subject to laws and regulations, including those governing air and greenhouse gas emissions, as well as various regulatory approvals, including a government agency failing to grant an approval or failing to renew an existing approval, or the approval or renewal not being provided by the government agency in a timely manner or the government agency granting or renewing an approval subject to materially onerous conditions;
risks to land titles, mining titles and use thereof as a result of native title claims;
claims by persons living in close proximity to mining projects, which may have an impact on the consents granted; and
interruptions to the operations of our customers caused by governmental action, industrial accidents, disputes or public health emergencies.
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We depend on several significant customers.

We depend on several significant customers, including customers that operate in the natural resources industry. The loss of any one of our largest customers in any of our business segments or a sustained decrease in demand by any of such customers could result in a substantial loss of revenues and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. In addition, the concentration of customers in the natural resources industry may impact our overall exposure to credit risk, either positively or negatively, in that customers may be similarly affected by changes in economic and industry conditions. With low and/or volatile oil and gas prices, some of our customers may face liquidity issues, which could impair their ability to pay or otherwise perform on their obligations. Furthermore, some of our customers may be highly leveraged and subject to their own operating and regulatory risks, which increases the risk that they may default on their obligations to us. For a more detailed explanation of our customers, see “Business” in Item 1 of this annual report.

Our failure to retain our current customers, renew our existing customer contracts and obtain new customer contracts, or the termination of existing contracts, could adversely affect our business.

Our success depends on our ability to retain our current customers, renew or replace our existing customer contracts and obtain new business. Our ability to do so generally depends on a variety of factors, including overall customer expenditure levels and the quality, price and responsiveness of our services, as well as our ability to market these services effectively and differentiate ourselves from our competitors. We cannot assure that we will be able to obtain new business, renew existing customer contracts at the same or higher levels of pricing, or at all, or that our current customers will not turn to competitors, cease operations, elect to (i) utilize their own, on-site accommodations or (ii) terminate contracts with us.

Our business is contract intensive and we are party to many contracts with customers. Due to the volatile nature of commodity prices, our customers may not renew contracts on terms favorable to us or, in some cases, at all, and we may have difficulty obtaining new business. Several contracts have clauses that allow termination upon the payment of a termination fee. As a result, our customers may choose to terminate their contracts. The likelihood that a customer may seek to terminate a contract is increased during periods of market volatility like those we are currently experiencing. Additionally, our exclusivity contracts do not include minimum room commitments, so we receive payment only if the customer utilizes our services. Finally, while we periodically review our compliance with contract terms and provisions, if customers were to dispute our contract determinations, the resolution of such disputes in a manner adverse to our interests, including customers withholding payments or modification of payment terms, could negatively affect sales and operating results.

We did not renew the land lease associated with our McClelland Lake Lodge in Alberta, Canada, which expired in June 2023, in order to support our customer’s intent to mine the land where the lodge was located. In addition, the accompanying hospitality services contract at McClelland Lake Lodge expired in July 2023; however, we continued to provide hospitality services to the customer at our other owned lodges through January 31, 2024 under a short-term take-or-pay commitment. We completed the sale of the McClelland Lake Lodge assets in January 2024. Revenues associated with the 2023 room commitments at the lodge through July 2023 were approximately C$39 million.

Customer contract cancellations, reduced customer utilization, the failure to renew a significant number of our existing contracts or the failure to obtain new business would have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Due to the significant geographic concentration of our business, adverse events in areas where we operate could negatively impact our business, and our geographic concentration could limit the number of customers seeking our services.

Because of the concentration of our business in three relatively small geographic areas: the oil sands region of Alberta, Canada, the coal producing, Bowen Basin region of Queensland, Australia and the iron ore producing, Pilbarra region of Western Australia, we have increased exposure in these areas to political, regulatory, environmental, labor, climate or natural disasters such as forest fires or flooding, events or developments that could disproportionately impact our operations and financial results. For example, in 2011 and 2017, cyclones and resulting flooding threatened our villages in Australia. Similarly, in 2011 and 2016, forest fires in northern Alberta impacted areas near our Canadian oil sands lodges. Moreover, global climate change may result in significant natural disasters occurring more frequently or with greater intensity, such as drought, wildfires, storms, sea-level rise, and flooding. Many of the areas in which we operate are very remote with limited local supplies, including availability of water, electricity or natural gas necessary to operate our business, and any significant adverse events such as those discussed above could impact our ability to obtain good or services and personnel.

In addition, a limited number of potential customers operate in the areas in which our business is located, and occupancy at each of our lodges may be constrained by the radius which potential customers are willing to transport their workers. Our geographic concentration could limit the number of customers seeking our services, and as to any single lodge or village, we
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may have few potential customers. Therefore, we are subject to volatility in occupancy in any location based on the capital spending plans of a limited number of customers, based on their changing decisions as to whether to outsource or use their own company-owned accommodations and whether other potential customers move into that lodge’s radius.

We may be adversely affected if customers reduce their accommodations outsourcing.

Our business and growth strategies depend in large part on customers outsourcing some or all of the services that we provide. Many natural resources companies in our core markets own their own accommodations facilities, while others outsource all or part of their accommodations requirements. Customers have largely built their own accommodations in the past but will outsource for additional capacity or if they perceive that outsourcing may provide quality services at a lower overall cost or allow them to accelerate the timing of their projects. We cannot be certain that these customer preferences will continue or that customers that have previously outsourced accommodations will not decide to perform these functions themselves or only outsource accommodations during the development or construction phases of their projects. In addition, labor unions representing customer employees and contractors have, in the past, opposed outsourcing accommodations to the extent that the unions believe that third-party accommodations negatively impact union membership and recruiting. The reversal or reduction in customer outsourcing of accommodations could negatively impact our financial results and growth prospects.

Risks Related to Our Operations

We operate in a highly competitive industry, and if we fail to compete effectively, our business will suffer.

The workforce accommodations and hospitality industry in which we operate is highly competitive. To be successful, we must provide hospitality services that meet the specific needs of our customers at competitive prices. The principal competitive factors in the markets in which we operate are service quality, availability, price, location, technical knowledge and experience and safety performance. We compete with international and regional competitors, several of which are significantly larger than us. These competitors offer similar services in the geographic regions in which we operate. Many natural resources companies in our core markets own their own accommodations facilities and outsource their service requirements, while others outsource all or part of their accommodations requirements. As a result of competition, we may be unable to continue to provide our present services, to provide such services at historical operating margins or to acquire additional business opportunities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Reduced levels of activity in the workforce accommodation industry can intensify competition and result in lower revenue to us.

Our operations may suffer due to over-capacity of certain types of accommodations assets in certain regions.

The demand for and/or pricing of rooms and accommodation services is subject to the overall availability of rooms in a region. If demand for our assets were to decrease, or to the extent that we and our competitors have capacity in excess of current demand, we may encounter decreased pricing for, or utilization of, our assets and services, which could adversely impact our operations and profits. For example, we experienced a decrease in customer demand in 2020 for accommodations in the Canadian oil sands and our U.S. business as a result of the economic disruption caused by COVID-19, and experienced a corresponding decrease in our occupancy and profitability. Continued volatility in commodity price levels, any future global health crises, inflationary pressures, actions taken by OPEC+ to adjust production levels, geopolitical events such as the ongoing Russia/Ukraine and Israel/Hamas conflicts, and regulatory implications on such prices, among other factors, could cause our Canadian oil sands and pipeline customers to reduce production, delay expansionary and maintenance spending and defer additional investments in their oil sands assets, which would cause a decrease in customer demand for our accommodations.

Increased operating costs and limited cost recovery through pricing or contract terms may constrain our ability to make a profit.

Our profitability can be adversely affected to the extent we are faced with cost increases for food, wages and other labor related expenses, insurance, fuel and utilities, especially to the extent we are unable to recover such increased costs through increases in the prices for our services, due to one or more of general economic conditions, competitive conditions or contractual provisions in our customer contracts. For example, substantial increases in the cost of fuel and utilities have historically resulted in cost increases in our lodges and villages.

In the last eighteen months, we have experienced a significant increase in our food costs due to global inflationary pressures. While inflation has stabilized, and while we have been able to pass some of the increased costs onto our customers, we expect to continue to experience increases in our food costs from time to time due to increasing fuel prices, rising global food demand, other general inflationary pressures and rising supply chain issues affecting supply of goods. In addition, food
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prices can fluctuate as a result of foreign exchange rates and temporary changes in supply, including as a result of incidences of wildfires or severe weather such as droughts, heavy rains and late freezes, or other climate effects. Climate and natural disaster events, such as forest fires or flooding, have the ability to impact local crop production, limiting supply and therefore having an upward pressure on food prices. For example, large swathes of farmland across the Australian states of New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria in 2022 were inundated with flood waters, damaging wheat and other crops including fruit and vegetables.

A shortage of skilled labor could also result in higher wages due to more expensive temporary hire labor resources that would increase our labor costs, which could negatively affect our profitability. For example, we have recently been impacted by increased staff costs as a result of hospitality labor shortages in Australia due to low levels of immigration into Australia and, specifically, an acute shortage of skilled labor. The reduced levels of immigration and shortage of skilled labor subsequently led to an increased reliance on more expensive temporary labor hire resources and negatively affected our profitability. Additionally, an increased proportion of temporary labor hire resources has the effect of driving up costs due to a lack of efficiency. The nature of temporary labor hire resource positions are short term, with key skills unable to be retained in our lodges and villages due to higher staff turnover.

While our multi-year contracts often provide for annual escalation in our room rates for food, labor and utility inflation, we may be unable to fully recover costs, or the recovery may be delayed, and such increases would negatively impact our profitability on contracts that do not contain such inflation protections.

Employee and customer labor problems could adversely affect us.

Our business is labor intensive requiring a significant number of employees to perform housekeeping, janitorial and food service functions at our locations or locations that we manage. As our operations grow or our occupancy increases, we require additional staff to take care of our guests at a standard we deem appropriate and to operate safely. If we are unable to hire a sufficient labor force, we could be required to increase wages or use temporary labor at a higher cost and reduced efficiency. In recent years, we experienced, and expect to continue to experience, a shortage of labor for certain functions, inflationary pressures on wages, and an increasingly competitive labor market. The extent and duration of the effect of these labor market challenges are subject to numerous factors, including geopolitical events such as the ongoing Russia/Ukraine and Israel/Hamas conflicts, availability of qualified persons in the markets where we and our contracted service providers operate, inflation and unemployment levels within these markets and our reputation within the labor market. Inefficient operations or further increased labor costs resulting from these labor market challenges could negatively impact our profitability and could damage our reputation with our customers.
Additionally, as of December 31, 2023, we were party to collective bargaining agreements covering 798 employees in Canada and 1,020 employees in Australia. Efforts have been made from time to time to unionize other portions of our workforce. In addition, our facilities serving oil sands development work in Northern Alberta, Canada and mining operations in Australia house both union and non-union customer employees. We have not experienced strikes, work stoppages or other slowdowns in the past, but we cannot guarantee that we will not experience such events in the future. A prolonged strike, work stoppage or other slowdown by our employees or by the employees of our customers could cause us to experience a disruption of our operations or adversely impact our reputation, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations. Additional unionization efforts and new collective bargaining agreements also could materially increase our costs or limit our flexibility. Collective bargaining agreements in our Canadian operations have individual expiration dates, but in no case extend beyond 2026. Enterprise bargaining agreements in our Australian operations cover certain employees working at our villages in Queensland, New South Wales and Western Australia, as well as certain employees working at our integrated services customer-owned sites in Western Australia and South Australia. These agreements either have individual expiration dates or continue until either party seeks to have such agreement cancelled, but in no case extend beyond 2024.

A failure to maintain food safety or comply with government regulations related to food and beverages or serving alcoholic beverages may subject us to liability.

Claims of illness or injury relating to food quality or food handling are common in the food service industry, and a number of these claims may exist at any given time. Because food safety issues could be experienced at the source or by food suppliers or distributors, food safety could, in part, be out of our control. Regardless of the source or cause, any report of food-borne illness or other food safety issues such as food tampering or contamination at one of our locations could adversely impact our reputation, hindering our ability to renew contracts on favorable terms or to obtain new business, and have a negative impact on our revenue. Future food product recalls and health concerns associated with food contamination may also increase our raw materials costs and, from time to time, disrupt our business.

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A variety of regulations at various governmental levels relating to the handling, preparation and serving of food (including, in some cases, requirements relating to the temperature of food), cleanliness of food production facilities and hygiene of food-handling personnel are enforced primarily at the local public health department level. We can give no assurances that we are in full compliance with all applicable laws and regulations at all times or that we will be able to comply with any future laws and regulations. Furthermore, legislation and regulatory attention to food safety is very high. Additional or amended regulations in this area may significantly increase the cost of compliance or expose us to liabilities.

We serve alcoholic beverages at some of our facilities, and must comply with applicable licensing laws, as well as local service laws. These laws generally prohibit serving alcoholic beverages to certain persons such as a patron who is intoxicated or a minor. If we violate these laws, we may be liable to the patron and/or to third parties for the acts of the patron. We cannot guarantee that certain patrons will not be served or that liability for their acts will not be imposed on us. There can be no assurance that additional regulation in this area would not limit our activities in the future or significantly increase the cost of regulatory compliance. We must also obtain and comply with the terms of licenses in order to sell alcoholic beverages in the jurisdictions in which we serve alcoholic beverages. If we are unable to maintain food safety or comply with government regulations related to food, beverages or alcoholic beverages, the effect could be materially adverse to our business and results of operations.

The majority of our major Canadian lodges are located on land subject to leases. If we are unable to renew a lease or obtain permits necessary to operate on such leased land, we could be materially and adversely affected.

The majority of our major Canadian lodges are located on land subject to provincial leases. Accordingly, while we own the accommodations assets, we only own a leasehold in those properties. If we are found to be in breach of a lease, we could lose the right to use the property. In addition, our leases generally have an initial term of ten years and will expire between 2024 and 2030 unless extended. Unless we can extend the terms of these leases before their expiration, as to which no assurance can be given, we will lose our right to operate our facilities located on these properties upon expiration of the leases. In that event, we would be required to remove our accommodations assets and remediate the site at our own cost, which could be material.

We did not renew an expiring land lease associated with our McClelland Lake Lodge in Alberta, Canada, which expired in June 2023, in order to support our customer’s intent to mine the land where the lodge was located. As of December 31, 2023, we had an asset retirement obligation (ARO) liability related to the McClelland Lake Lodge on our balance sheet of $0.3 million. Consistent with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, this liability is the estimated present value of the amount of required asset removal and site remediation costs related to the retirement of assets at this location in 2023.

As of December 31, 2023, we had other ARO liabilities on our balance sheet of $16.2 million. Should the remediation requirement be accelerated, our near term cash obligation could be significantly larger than the liability currently on our balance sheet and could negatively impact our cash flows and liquidity.

Also, in certain areas in which we operate, we are required to seek permits from local government agencies in order to build a new lodge or operate an existing lodge on leased land. We can provide no assurances that we will be able to renew our leases or permits upon expiration on similar terms, or at all. If we are unable to renew our leases or permits on similar terms, it may have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

We are susceptible to seasonal earnings volatility due to adverse weather conditions in our regions of operations.

Our operations are directly affected by seasonal differences in weather in the areas in which we operate. A portion of our Canadian operations is conducted during the winter months when the winter freeze in remote regions is required for exploration and production activity to occur. The spring thaw in these frontier regions restricts operations in the spring months and, as a result, adversely affects our operations and our ability to provide services in the second quarter. During the Australian rainy season, generally between the months of November and April, our operations in Queensland and the northern parts of Western Australia can be affected by cyclones, monsoons and resultant flooding. Additionally, the areas in which we operate are susceptible to wildfires. Finally, global climate change may result in certain of these adverse weather conditions occurring more frequently or with greater intensity. If any of these conditions occur, our operations could be interrupted and our earnings may be adversely impacted.

Failure to maintain positive relationships with the Indigenous people in the areas where we operate could adversely affect our business.

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A component of our business strategy is based on developing and maintaining positive relationships with the Indigenous people and communities in the areas where we operate. These relationships are important to our operations and customers who desire to work on traditional Indigenous lands. The inability to develop and maintain relationships and to be in compliance with local requirements could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Development of permanent infrastructure in the areas where we locate our assets could negatively impact our business.

We specialize in providing hospitality services for workforces in remote areas which often lack the infrastructure typically available in nearby towns and cities. If permanent towns, cities and municipal infrastructure develop, grow or otherwise become available in the oil sands region of northern Alberta, Canada, the west coast of British Columbia or regions of Australia where we operate, then demand for our hospitality services could decrease as customer employees move to the region and choose to utilize permanent housing and food service.

We may be subject to risks associated with the transportation, installation and demobilization of mobile accommodations.

We currently have several contracts to transport and install modular, skid-mounted accommodations and central facilities that can be quickly configured to serve a multitude of short- to medium-term accommodation needs. In connection with the transportation and installation of these facilities, we may be exposed to various risks, including:

delays in necessary approvals to install the facilities or objections to our activities or those of our customers aired by aboriginal or community interests, environment and/or neighborhood groups which may cause delays in the granting of such approvals and/or the overall progress of a project;
challenges during installation, including problems, defects, inclement weather conditions, land contamination, cultural heritage claims, difficult site access or industrial relations issues; and
risks related to the quality of our materials and workmanship, including warranties and defect liability obligations.

Our business could be negatively impacted by security threats, including cybersecurity threats and other disruptions.

We face various security threats, including cybersecurity threats to gain unauthorized access to sensitive information or to render data or systems unusable or hold them for ransom; threats to the safety of our employees; threats to the security of our facilities and infrastructure or third-party facilities and infrastructure; and threats from terrorist acts. Although we utilize various procedures and controls to monitor these threats and mitigate our exposure to such threats, including cybersecurity insurance, there can be no assurance that these procedures and controls will be sufficient in preventing security threats from materializing. If any of these events were to materialize, they could lead to losses of sensitive information, critical infrastructure, personnel or capabilities essential to our operations and could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, competitive position, financial position, results of operations or cash flows. In addition, such events could result in litigation, regulatory action and potential liability, including liability under laws that protect the privacy of personal information, as well as the costs and operational consequences of implementing further data protection measures.

Cybersecurity attacks in particular develop and evolve rapidly, including from emerging technologies, such as advanced forms of artificial intelligence. Such attacks include, but are not limited to, malicious software, attempts to gain unauthorized access to data, ransomware attacks and other electronic security breaches that could lead to disruptions in critical systems, unauthorized release of or denial of access to confidential or otherwise protected information and corruption of data. We have experienced, and expect to continue to confront, efforts by hackers and other third parties to gain unauthorized access or deny access to, or otherwise disrupt, our information systems and networks. While we have not experienced a material cybersecurity incident in the last three years, a material cybersecurity incident could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.

Our business could be disrupted by any failure of our information systems.

We depend on our information systems to actively manage our accommodation services, including with respect to administrative functions, financial and operational data, ordering and point of sale processing, to enhance our ability to optimize facility utilization, occupancy, costs of goods sold and average daily rate. The failure of our information systems to perform as anticipated could damage our reputation with our customers, disrupt our business or result in, among other things, decreased revenue and increased costs. Any such failure could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, the delay or failure to implement information system upgrades and new systems effectively could disrupt our business, distract management’s focus and attention from business operations and growth initiatives, and increase our implementation
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and operating costs, any of which could materially adversely affect our operations and operating results. Furthermore, these technologies may require refinements and upgrades, which may require significant investment by us. As various systems and technologies become outdated or new technology is required, we may not be able to replace or introduce them as quickly as needed or in a cost- effective and timely manner. As a result, we may not achieve the benefits we may have been anticipating from any new technology or system.

Loss of key members of our management could adversely affect our business.

We depend on the continued employment and performance of key members of our management. If any of our key managers resign or become unable to continue in their present roles and are not adequately replaced, our business operations could be materially adversely affected. We do not maintain “key man” life insurance for any of our officers.

Financial/Accounting Risks

Currency exchange rate fluctuations could adversely affect our U.S. dollar reported results of operations and financial position.

Our reporting currency is the U.S. dollar, and we are exposed to currency exchange risk primarily between the U.S. dollar and the Canadian and Australian dollars. For the year ended December 31, 2023, 98% of our revenues originated from subsidiaries outside of the U.S. and were denominated in either the Canadian dollar or the Australian dollar. As a result, a material decrease in the value of these currencies relative to the U.S. dollar has had, and may have in the future, a negative impact on our reported revenues, net income, financial condition and cash flows. Any currency controls implemented by local monetary authorities in countries where we currently operate could also adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We may attempt to limit the risks of currency fluctuation where possible by entering into financial instruments to protect against foreign currency exposure, but, to date, we have not entered into any foreign currency financial instruments. Our efforts to limit exchange risks may be unsuccessful, thereby exposing us to foreign currency fluctuations that could cause our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows to deteriorate.

We may not have adequate insurance for potential liabilities and insurance may not cover certain liabilities.

Our operations are subject to many hazards. In the ordinary course of business, we become the subject of various claims, lawsuits and administrative proceedings seeking damages or other remedies concerning our commercial operations, products, employees and other matters, including occasional claims by individuals alleging exposure to hazardous materials as a result of our products or operations. Some of these claims relate to the activities of businesses that we have acquired, even though these activities may have occurred prior to our acquisition of such businesses. We maintain insurance to cover many of our potential losses, including cyber risk insurance, and we are subject to various self-retentions and deductibles under our insurance policies. It is possible, however, that a judgment could be rendered against us in cases in which we could be uninsured and beyond the amounts that we currently have reserved or anticipate incurring for such matters. Even a partially uninsured or underinsured claim, if successful and of significant size, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or consolidated financial position. In addition, we are insured under the insurance policies of Oil States International, Inc. (Oil States) for occurrences prior to the completion of our spin-off from Oil States in May 2014 (the Spin-Off). The specifications and insured limits under those policies, however, may be insufficient for such claims. We also face other risks related to our insurance coverage, including (i) we may not be able to continue to obtain insurance on commercially reasonable terms; (ii) the counterparties to our insurance contracts may pose credit risks; (iii) we may incur losses from interruption of our business that exceed our insurance coverage; and (iv) we may not be able to procure insurance for certain risks due to various factors including insurance market constraints.

The cyclical nature of our business and a severe prolonged downturn has, and could in the future, negatively affect the value of our long-lived assets and our goodwill.

We recorded impairments of our long-lived assets of $1.4 million, $5.7 million and $7.9 million in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. As of December 31, 2023, goodwill at our Australian reporting unit represented 1% of total assets, or $7.7 million.

Factors that may cause us to recognize further impairment losses on our long-lived assets or on the goodwill at our Australian reporting unit include, among other things, extended periods of limited or no activity by our customers at our lodges or villages, increased or unanticipated competition, and downward forecast revisions or restructuring plans or if certain of our customers do not reach positive final investment decisions on projects with respect to which we have been awarded contracts to provide related accommodation, which may cause those customers to terminate the contracts.

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Our inability to control the inherent risks of identifying, acquiring and integrating businesses that we may acquire, including any related increases in debt or issuances of equity securities, could adversely affect our operations.

Acquisitions have been, and our management believes acquisitions will continue to be, a key element of our growth strategy. We may not be able to identify and acquire acceptable acquisition candidates on favorable terms in the future. We may be required to incur substantial indebtedness to finance future acquisitions and also may issue equity securities in connection with such acquisitions. Such additional debt service requirements could impose a significant burden on our results of operations and financial condition. The issuance of additional equity securities could result in significant dilution to shareholders. In addition, overpayment of an acquisition could cause potential impairments which could affect our results of operations.

We expect to gain certain business, financial and strategic advantages as a result of business combinations we undertake, including synergies and operating efficiencies. Our forward-looking statements assume that we will successfully integrate our business acquisitions and realize these intended benefits. The success of any acquisitions we make depends, in large part, on our ability to realize the anticipated benefits, including operating synergies from combining our businesses, which were previously operated independently, and retaining and integrating key employees, vendors and customers from the acquired businesses. An inability to realize expected strategic advantages as a result of the acquisition would negatively affect the anticipated benefits of the acquisition.

Additionally, an acquisition may bring us into businesses we have not previously conducted or geographies in which we have not previously operated and expose us to additional business risks that are different from those we have previously experienced. Our future success depends, in part, upon our ability to manage this expanded business, which will pose substantial challenges for our management, including challenges related to the management and monitoring of new operations and associated increased costs and complexity. If we fail to manage any of these risks successfully, our business could be harmed. Our capitalization and results of operations may change significantly following an acquisition, and our shareholders may not have the opportunity to evaluate the economic, financial and other relevant information that we will consider in evaluating future acquisitions.

Our indebtedness could restrict our operations and make us more vulnerable to adverse economic conditions.

As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately $65.6 million outstanding under the revolving portion of our Syndicated Facility Agreement (Credit Agreement), $1.4 million of outstanding letters of credit and an additional $133.1 million in remaining capacity to borrow under the revolving portion of the Credit Agreement. If market or other economic conditions remain depressed or further deteriorate, our borrowing capacity may be reduced.

Our Credit Agreement contains, and any future indebtedness we incur may contain, a number of restrictive covenants that impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us and may limit our ability to, among other things, borrow funds, dispose of assets, pay dividends and make certain investments. In addition, these covenants also may limit our ability to obtain future financings, make needed capital expenditures, withstand a continued downturn in our business or a downturn in the economy in general or otherwise conduct necessary corporate activities. Our ability to comply with these covenants may be affected by events beyond our control. Declines in commodity prices, or a prolonged period of commodity prices at depressed levels, could eventually result in our failing to meet one or more of the financial covenants under the Credit Agreement, which could require us to refinance or amend such obligations resulting in the payment of consent fees or higher interest rates, or require us to raise additional capital at an inopportune time or on terms not favorable to us.

A failure to comply with these covenants, ratios or tests could also result in an event of default. A default under the Credit Agreement, if not cured or waived, could result in acceleration of all indebtedness outstanding thereunder. The accelerated debt would become immediately due and payable. If that should occur, we may be unable to pay all such debt or to borrow sufficient funds to refinance it. Even if new financing were then available, it may not be on terms that are acceptable to us. In addition, in the event of an event of default under the Credit Agreement, the lenders could foreclose on the collateral securing the credit facility and require repayment of all borrowings outstanding. If the amounts outstanding under the credit facility or any of our other indebtedness were to be accelerated, our assets may not be sufficient to repay in full the money owed to the lenders or to our other debt holders. Moreover, any new indebtedness we incur may impose financial restrictions and other covenants on us that may be more restrictive than our existing debt agreements.

Our ability to service our debt, including repaying outstanding borrowings under our Credit Agreement at maturity, will depend upon, among other things, our future financial and operating performance, which will be affected by prevailing economic conditions and financial, business, regulatory and other factors, some of which are beyond our control. If our business does not generate sufficient cash flows from operations to enable us to meet our obligations under our indebtedness, we will be forced to take actions such as reducing or delaying business activities, including dividend payments and share repurchases,
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acquisitions, investments and/or capital expenditures, selling assets, restructuring or refinancing our indebtedness or seeking additional equity capital. We may not be able to effect any of these remedies on satisfactory terms or at all, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Legal and Regulatory Risks

We do business in Canada and Australia, whose political and regulatory environments and compliance regimes differ from those in the U.S.

A significant portion of our revenue is attributable to operations in Canada and Australia. These activities accounted for 98% of our consolidated revenue in the year ended December 31, 2023. Risks associated with our operations in Canada and Australia include, but are not limited to, (i) different taxing regimes; (ii) changing political conditions at the federal, provincial or state level; (iii) changing international and U.S. monetary policies; and (iv) regional economic downturns.

The regulatory regimes in these countries are substantially different than those in the U.S. and may be unfamiliar to U.S. investors. Violations of non-U.S. laws could result in monetary and criminal penalties against us or our subsidiaries and could damage our reputation and, therefore, our ability to do business.

We are subject to extensive and costly environmental laws and regulations that may require us to take actions that will adversely affect our results of operations.

All of our operations are significantly affected by stringent and complex foreign, federal, provincial, state and local laws and regulations governing the discharge of substances into the environment or otherwise relating to environmental protection. We could be exposed to liabilities for cleanup costs, natural resource damages and other damages as a result of our conduct that was lawful at the time it occurred or the conduct of, or conditions caused by, prior operators or other third-parties. There is inherent risk of environmental costs and liabilities in our business as a result of historical industry operations and waste disposal practices, which include air emissions and waste water discharges as well as our handling of petroleum hydrocarbons related to our operations. Certain environmental statutes impose joint and several strict liability for these costs. For example, an accidental release by us in the performance of services at one of our or our customers’ sites could subject us to substantial liabilities arising from environmental cleanup, restoration costs and natural resource damages, claims made by neighboring landowners and other third parties for personal injury and property damage and fines or penalties for related violations of environmental laws or regulations. We may not be able to recover some or any of these costs from insurance.

Environmental laws and regulations are subject to change in the future, possibly resulting in more stringent requirements. The implementation of new laws and regulations could result in materially increased costs, stricter standards and enforcement, increased reporting obligations, larger fines and liability and increased capital expenditures and operating costs, particularly for our customers, and could have an adverse effect on our business or demand for our services. See Item 1. “Business - Government Regulation” of this annual report for a more detailed description of our risks associated with environmental laws and regulations. It should also be noted that scientists have concluded that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the earth’s atmosphere may produce climate changes that have significant physical effects, such as increased frequency and severity of storms, droughts, and floods and other climatic events.

Any failure by us to comply with applicable environmental laws and regulations may result in governmental authorities taking actions against our business that could adversely impact our business and results of operations, including the issuance of administrative, civil and criminal penalties; denial or revocation of permits or other authorizations; reduction or cessation of operations; and performance of site investigatory, remedial or other corrective actions.

We may be exposed to certain regulatory and financial risks related to climate change and other ESG-related matters.

Climate change and other ESG-related matters are receiving increasing attention from the media, scientists and legislators alike, which has resulted in legislative, regulatory and other initiatives, including international agreements, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide and methane, and proposed regulations to increase climate change reporting obligations. Significant focus is being made on companies that are active producers of fossil fuels, or companies which serve such producers.

Efforts have been made and continue to be made in the international community toward the adoption of international treaties or protocols that would address global climate change issues and impose reductions of hydrocarbon-based fuels. There are a number of legislative and regulatory proposals to address greenhouse gas emissions, including increased fuel efficiency standards, carbon taxes or cap and trade systems, restrictive permitting, and incentives for renewable energy, which are in various phases of discussion or implementation. Moreover, such legislation, regulations and proposals are subject to frequent
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change by regulatory authorities. The outcome of Canadian, Australian and U.S. federal, regional, provincial and state actions to address global climate change could result in a variety of regulatory programs including potential new regulations, additional charges to fund energy efficiency activities, or other regulatory actions. These actions could both (i) directly impact us due to increased costs associated with our operations, and (ii) indirectly impact us due to increased costs of and/or reduced demand for our customers' operations, and resulting reduced demand for our services.

Any adoption of these or similar proposals by Canadian, Australian or U.S. federal, regional, provincial, state or local governments mandating a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions could have far-reaching and significant impacts on the energy industry, including negatively impacting the price of oil relative to other energy sources, reducing demand for hydrocarbons and other minerals or limiting drilling or mining in the areas in which we operate. Although it is not possible at this time to predict how legislation or new regulations that may be adopted to address greenhouse gas emissions would impact our business, any such future laws and regulations could result in increased compliance costs or additional operating restrictions, and could have a material adverse effect on our business or demand for our services.

In addition, there have also been efforts in recent years to influence the investment community, including investment advisors and certain sovereign wealth, pension and endowment funds promoting divestment of fossil fuel equities and pressuring lenders to limit funding to companies engaged in the extraction of fossil fuel reserves. Such environmental activism and initiatives aimed at limiting climate change and reducing air pollution could interfere with our business activities, operations and ability to access capital and assess acquisitions. Furthermore, members of the investment community, as well as political advocacy groups, are increasing their focus on ESG practices and disclosures by public companies, and concerns over climate change have resulted in, and are expected to continue to result in, the adoption of regulatory requirements for climate-related disclosures. As a result, we may continue to face increasing pressure regarding our ESG disclosures and practices, and mandatory reporting obligations could increase our compliance burden and costs. We publish an annual ESG Report, which outlines our progress and ongoing efforts to advance our ESG initiatives. Our disclosures on these matters rely on management’s expectations as of the date the statements are first made, as well as standards for measuring progress that are still in development, and may change or fail to be realized. These expectations and standards may continue to evolve. If our ESG disclosures and practices do not meet regulatory, investor or other stakeholder expectations and standards, which continue to evolve, it could have a material adverse effect on our business or demand for our services. At the same time, some stakeholders and regulators have increasingly expressed or pursued opposing views, legislation, and investment expectations with respect to ESG, including the enactment or proposal of “anti-ESG” legislation or policies. By publishing our annual ESG Report, our business may also face increased scrutiny related to ESG activities and be unable to satisfy all stakeholders. Additionally, members of the investment community may screen our ESG disclosures and performance before investing in our common shares.

See Item 1. “Business - Government Regulation” of this annual report for a more detailed description of our climate-change related risks.

Risks Related to Our Common Shares

The market price and trading volume of our common shares may be volatile.

The market price of our common shares has historically experienced and may continue to experience volatility. For example, during 2023, the market price of our common shares ranged from a low of $17.87 per share to a high of $36.88 per share. The market price of our common shares may be influenced by many factors, some of which are beyond our control, including those described above and the following:

changes in financial estimates by analysts and our inability to meet those financial estimates;
strategic actions by us or our competitors;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant contracts, acquisitions, joint marketing relationships, joint ventures or capital commitments;
variations in our quarterly operating results and those of our competitors;
general economic and stock market conditions;
risks related to our business and our industry, including those discussed above;
changes in conditions or trends in our industry, markets or customers;
geopolitical events or terrorist acts, including cybersecurity threats;
trading volume of our common shares;
the majority of our common shares being held by a few shareholders;
our policy on share repurchases and dividend payments;
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future sales of our common shares or other securities by us, members of our management team or our existing shareholders; and
investor perceptions of the investment opportunity associated with our industry or common shares relative to other investment alternatives.

These factors may materially reduce the market price of our common shares, regardless of our operating performance. In addition, our average daily trading volume on the New York Stock Exchange has historically been low, which may result in greater price volatility.

In addition, in recent years the stock market has experienced substantial price and volume fluctuations. This volatility has had a significant effect on the market prices of securities issued by many companies for reasons potentially unrelated to their operating performance. For example, our share price may experience substantial volatility due to uncertainty regarding commodity prices. These market fluctuations, regardless of the cause, may materially and adversely affect our share price, regardless of our operating results. Price volatility may cause the average price at which we repurchase our common shares (see Note 17 – Share Repurchase Programs and Dividends for a discussion of repurchases of our common shares) in a given period to exceed the share price at a given point in time. In addition, stock market volatility may impact our ability to access the capital markets in the future on acceptable terms or at all. Furthermore, the trading market for our common shares is influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our share price or trading volume to decline.

The payment of dividends and repurchases of our common shares are each within the discretion of our Board of Directors, and there is no guarantee that we will pay any dividends or repurchase common shares in the future or at levels anticipated by our shareholders.

The amount and timing of all future payments of dividends or repurchases of common shares pursuant to our share repurchase program, if any, are each subject to the discretion of the Board of Directors (Board) and will depend upon business conditions, results of operations, financial condition and other factors. Our Board may, without advance notice, discontinue the payment of dividends or suspend or terminate our share repurchase program. There can be no assurance that we will make dividend payments or repurchase our common shares in the future. The payment of dividends on our common shares or repurchase of shares under our share repurchase program could diminish our cash reserves, which may impact our ability to finance future growth and to pursue possible future strategic growth projects. In addition, any elimination of, or downward revision in, our dividend policy or our share repurchase program could have an adverse effect on the market price of our common shares. While the U.S. has imposed an excise tax on U.S. domestic corporations repurchasing stock, our share repurchase program is not currently subject to this tax. A similar 2% tax has been imposed in Canada, effective January 1, 2024, which applies to us and may impact the tax efficiency of our share repurchase program.
We are governed by the corporate laws in British Columbia, Canada which in some cases have a different effect on shareholders than the corporate laws in Delaware, U.S.

There are material differences between the Business Corporations Act (British Columbia) (BCBCA) as compared to the Delaware General Corporation Law (DGCL). Some of these material differences include the following: (i) for material corporate transactions (such as amalgamations, arrangements, the sale of all or substantially all of our undertaking, and other extraordinary corporate transactions), the BCBCA, subject to the provisions of our articles, generally requires two-thirds majority vote by shareholders, whereas DGCL generally only requires a majority vote of shareholders for similar material corporate transactions; and (ii) under the BCBCA, a holder of 5% or more of our common shares can requisition a general meeting of shareholders for the purpose of transacting any business that may be transacted at a general meeting, whereas the DGCL does not give this right. We cannot predict if investors will find our common shares less attractive because of these material differences. If some investors find our common shares less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common shares and our share price may be more volatile.

Provisions contained in our articles and applicable Canadian and British Columbia laws could discourage a take-over attempt, which may reduce or eliminate the likelihood of a change of control transaction and, therefore, the ability of our shareholders to sell their shares for a premium.

Provisions contained in our articles provide for a classified Board, limitations on the removal of directors, limitations on shareholder proposals at meetings of shareholders and limitations on shareholder action by written consent, which could make it more difficult for a third-party to acquire control of us. Our articles, subject to the corporate law of British Columbia, also authorize our Board to issue series of preferred shares without shareholder approval. If our Board elects to issue preferred
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shares, it could increase the difficulty for a third-party to acquire us, which may reduce or eliminate our shareholders’ ability to sell their common shares at a premium. In addition, in Canada, we may become subject to applicable securities laws, including National Instrument 62-104 Take-Over Bids and Issuer Bids of the Canadian Securities Administrators, which provide a heightened threshold for shareholder acceptance of third-party acquisition offers and could discourage take-over attempts that could result in a premium over the market price for our common shares.

As a British Columbia company, we may be subject to additional Canadian laws and regulations. The application of additional Canadian laws and regulations could make it more difficult for third parties to acquire control of us. For example, such laws and regulations may, depending on the circumstances, result in regulatory reviews of and may require regulatory approval for any proposed take-over attempts.

Any of the foregoing could prevent or delay a change of control and may deprive or limit strategic opportunities for our shareholders to sell their common shares and/or affect the market price of our common shares.

The enforcement of civil liabilities against Civeo may be more difficult.

Civeo is a British Columbia company and a substantial portion of our assets are located outside the U.S. As a result, investors could experience more difficulty enforcing judgments obtained against us in U.S. courts than would be the case for U.S. judgments obtained against a U.S. company. In addition, some claims may be more difficult to bring against Civeo in Canadian courts than it would be to bring similar claims against a U.S. company in a U.S. court.

Risks Related to Our Structure

We are subject to various Canadian, Australian and other taxes.

Our effective tax rates (including our Canadian and Australian tax rate) are dependent on a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our ability to control, such as changes in the rate of economic growth in jurisdictions in which we operate, currency exchange rate fluctuations (especially between Canadian and U.S. dollars and Australian and U.S. dollars), and significant changes in trade, monetary or fiscal policies of Canada and Australia, including changes in interest rates, withholding taxes, tax treaties and federal and provincial tax rates generally. The impact of these factors, individually and in the aggregate, is difficult to predict, in part because the occurrence of any number of the events or circumstances described in such factors may be (and, in fact, often seem to be) interrelated, and the impact to us of the occurrence of any one of these events or circumstances could be compounded or, alternatively, reduced, offset, or more than offset, by the occurrence of one or more of the other events or circumstances described in such factors.

Canada’s tax rules under the Income Tax Act (Canada) (the Canadian Tax Act) allow for favorable tax treatment related to the repatriation of certain dividends from foreign affiliates. If it becomes necessary or desirable to repatriate earnings from subsidiaries, repatriating earnings could, in certain circumstances, give rise to the imposition of potentially significant withholding taxes by the jurisdictions in which such amounts were earned, without our receiving the benefit of any offsetting tax credits, which could adversely impact our effective tax rate and cash flows. These tax rules are complicated and could change over time. Any such changes could have a material impact on our overall tax rate.

Canada has also introduced tax rules governing “foreign affiliate dumping” in the Canadian Tax Act that can have adverse tax consequences in respect of non-Canadian business activities and investments for Canadian corporations that are controlled by non-Canadian corporations. These rules would have a negative impact on us to the extent that we became controlled by a non-Canadian resident corporation.

We remain subject to changes in tax law (in various jurisdictions) and other factors that could impact our effective tax rate.

The tax laws of Canada, Australia and the U.S. could change in the future, and such changes could cause a material change in our effective corporate tax rate. As a result, our realized effective tax rate may be materially different from our current expectation. Our provision for income taxes will be based on certain estimates and assumptions made by management in consultation with our tax and other advisors. Our consolidated income tax rate will be affected by the amount of net income earned in Canada and our other operating jurisdictions, the availability of benefits under tax treaties, and the rates of taxes payable in respect of that income. We will enter into many transactions and arrangements in the ordinary course of business in respect of which the tax treatment is not entirely certain. We will therefore make estimates and judgments based on our knowledge and understanding of applicable tax laws and tax treaties, and the application of those tax laws and tax treaties to our business, in determining our consolidated tax provision. The final outcome of any audits by taxation authorities may differ from
37

the estimates and assumptions we may use in determining our consolidated tax provisions and accruals. This could result in a material adverse effect on our consolidated income tax provision, financial condition and the net income for the period in which such determinations are made.

The U.S. Congress, government agencies in non-U.S. jurisdictions where we and our affiliates do business, and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (the “OECD”) have recently focused on issues related to the taxation of multinational corporations. For example, the OECD has proposed a two-pillar plan to reform international taxation, with proposals to ensure a fairer distribution of profits among countries and to impose a floor on tax competition through the introduction of a global minimum tax. As a result, the tax laws in the U.S. and other countries in which we and our affiliates do business could change on a prospective or retroactive basis (or both), and any such changes could materially adversely affect us.

Future potential changes to U.S. tax laws could result in Civeo being treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Although we have historically been regarded as a foreign corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, changes to Section 7874 of the Internal Revenue Code or the U.S. Treasury regulations promulgated thereunder, or official interpretations thereof, could adversely affect Civeo’s status as a foreign corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. For example, members of Congress from time to time have proposed changes to the Internal Revenue Code, and the U.S. Treasury has taken and may continue to take regulatory action, in connection with inversion transactions. The timing and substance of any such change in law or regulatory action is uncertain. Any such change of law or regulatory action could adversely impact the treatment of Civeo as a foreign corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes and could adversely impact its tax position and financial position and results in a material manner. The precise scope and application of any legislative or regulatory proposals will not be clear until they are actually issued, and, accordingly, until such legislation or regulations are issued and fully understood, we cannot be certain as to their potential impact. If Civeo were to be treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, it could be subject to substantially greater U.S. federal income tax liability.

ITEM 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

ITEM 1C. Cybersecurity

 Risk Management and Strategy

We recognize the importance of developing, implementing and maintaining robust cybersecurity measures to safeguard our information systems and protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of our data. Our processes for assessing, identifying, and managing material risks from cybersecurity threats have been integrated into our overall risk management system and processes. Cybersecurity events are collected, evaluated and, when appropriate, escalated to the Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) for impact analysis utilizing the cybersecurity risk management policy.

Cybersecurity risks are monitored and evaluated by management through an internal compliance program with oversight by internal audit. We engage a variety of cybersecurity partners to perform penetration testing and quarterly audits on our cybersecurity profile. These partnerships enable us to leverage specialized knowledge and insights, and are meant to help our cybersecurity strategies and processes in remaining risk appropriate. In order to promote a company-wide culture of cybersecurity risk management, management has also implemented a variety of required programs to both test and train our employees on cybersecurity fundamentals, including both annual and ongoing information security awareness training.

Our cybersecurity policies and procedures encompass data privacy, incident response, information security and risks from our use of third-party vendors. In order to help develop these policies and procedures, we monitor the privacy and cybersecurity laws, regulations and guidance applicable to us in the regions where we do business, as well as proposed privacy and cybersecurity laws, regulations, guidance and emerging risks.

We also have conducted a cyber breach simulation exercise with the assistance of a third party cybersecurity consultant. The exercise focused on incident management and communication processes. Company business functions, executive management and members of the Board participated. The goal was to identify opportunities for greater efficiency, coordination, and alignment.

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We face risks from various security threats, including cybersecurity threats to gain unauthorized access to sensitive information or to render data or systems unusable or hold them for ransom. Cybersecurity attacks in particular develop and evolve rapidly, including from emerging technologies, such as advanced forms of artificial intelligence. Such attacks include, but are not limited to, malicious software, attempts to gain unauthorized access to data, ransomware attacks and other electronic security breaches that could lead to disruptions in critical systems, unauthorized release of or denial of access to confidential or otherwise protected information and corruption of data. We have experienced, and expect to continue to confront, efforts by hackers and other third parties to gain unauthorized access or deny access to, or otherwise disrupt, our information systems and networks. Risks from cybersecurity threats, including as a result of any previous cybersecurity incidents, have not materially affected us, including our business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition, but we face certain ongoing risks from cybersecurity threats that, if realized, are reasonably likely to have such an affect. See Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” under the heading “Risks Related to Our Operations - Our business could be negatively impacted by security threats, including cybersecurity threats and other disruptions” for more information regarding the risks we face.

As discussed in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” under the heading “Financial/Accounting Risks – We may not have adequate insurance for potential liabilities and insurance may not cover certain liabilities,” we maintain cyber risk insurance to mitigate our exposure to these threats.

Governance

Risk oversight is a responsibility of the Board. The Board has delegated responsibility for monitoring technology and cybersecurity risks to the Audit Committee. The Board reviews the Company's cybersecurity risk posture, strategy and execution on at least an annual basis while the Audit Committee receives cybersecurity updates quarterly.

The CISO and executive management play a pivotal role in informing the Audit Committee on cybersecurity risks. Executive management, including the CISO, regularly meets with the Audit Committee to discuss cybersecurity risks, review quarterly cyber metrics and oversee progress against our annual action plans. These briefings may encompass a broad range of topics, including:

Current cybersecurity landscape and emerging threats;
Status of ongoing cybersecurity initiatives and strategies;
Incident reports and learnings from any cybersecurity events; and
Compliance with regulatory requirements and industry standards.

In addition to our scheduled meetings, the Audit Committee and executive management maintain an ongoing dialogue regarding emerging or potential cybersecurity risks.

Primary responsibility for assessing, monitoring and managing our cybersecurity risks rests with the CISO. Our CISO has cybersecurity expertise from over 18 years of experience in the field of cybersecurity. His background includes extensive experience as CISO at Civeo and previously for a Fortune 500 company. He also oversees our cybersecurity governance programs, assists with testing our compliance with applicable standards, leads our efforts to remediate known risks and leads our employee training program.

The CISO is informed about the latest developments in cybersecurity, including potential threats and innovative risk management techniques. The CISO implements and oversees processes for the monitoring of our information systems. This includes the deployment of advanced security measures and regular system audits to identify potential vulnerabilities. The Company deploys a Security Operations Center team who monitor and escalate cybersecurity events. In the event of a cybersecurity incident, the CISO is equipped with an incident response plan, which is intended to mitigate the impact of the incident and includes long-term strategies for remediation and prevention of future incidents.

The CISO regularly updates executive management on cybersecurity risks and incidents. Significant cybersecurity matters and certain strategic risk management decisions are escalated to the Audit Committee and the Board.

ITEM 2. Properties
 
The following table presents information about our principal properties and facilities as of December 31, 2023. Except as indicated, we own all of the properties or facilities listed below. Each of the properties is encumbered by our secured credit facilities. See Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operationsin Item 7 and Note 11 – Debt to the notes to consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this annual report for additional information
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concerning our credit facilities. For a discussion about how each of our business segments utilizes its respective properties, see Item 1, “Business” of this annual report.

LocationApproximate 
Square
Footage/Acreage
Description
Canada:  
Fort McMurray, Alberta (leased land)240 acresWapasu Creek Lodge
Fort McMurray, Alberta (leased land)138 acresFort McMurray Village
Fort McMurray, Alberta (leased land)135 acresConklin Lodge
Fort McMurray, Alberta (leased land)128 acresBeaver River and Athabasca Lodges
Kitimat, British Columbia59 acresSitka Lodge
Fort McMurray, Alberta (leased land and lodges)58 acresHudson and Borealis Lodges
Acheson, Alberta (lease)40 acresOffice and warehouse
Vanderhoof, British Columbia33 acresStorage yard
Fort McMurray, Alberta (leased land)30 acresGreywolf Lodge
Fort McMurray, Alberta (leased land)18 acresAnzac Lodge
Edmonton, Alberta (lease)86,376 sq. feetOffice and commercial production kitchen
Calgary, Alberta (lease)7,000 sq. feetOffice
Australia:  
Coppabella, Queensland, Australia192 acresCoppabella Village
Narrabri, New South Wales, Australia82 acresNarrabri Village
Boggabri, New South Wales, Australia52 acresBoggabri Village
Dysart, Queensland, Australia50 acresDysart Village
Middlemount, Queensland, Australia37 acresMiddlemount Village
Karratha, Western Australia, Australia (owned and leased land)34 acresKarratha Village
Nebo, Queensland, Australia26 acresNebo Village
Moranbah, Queensland, Australia17 acresMoranbah Village
Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (lease)11,518 sq. feetOffice
Perth, Western Australia, Australia (lease)6,921 sq. feetOffice
Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (lease)5,543 sq. feetOffice
U.S.:  
Houston, Texas (lease)8,900 sq. feetPrincipal executive offices
Sulphur, Louisiana 44 acresAcadian Acres land only
Killdeer, North Dakota39 acresKilldeer Lodge

We also own various undeveloped properties in British Columbia.

We believe that our leases are at competitive or market rates and do not anticipate any difficulty in leasing additional suitable space upon expiration of our current lease terms.
 
Leased land for our lodge properties in Canada refers to land leased from the Alberta government. We also lease land for our Karratha Village from the state government in Australia. Generally, these leases have an initial term of ten years and are scheduled to expire between 2024 and 2030.

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ITEM 3. Legal Proceedings
 
We are a party to various pending or threatened claims, lawsuits and administrative proceedings seeking damages or other remedies concerning our commercial operations, products, employees and other matters, including occasional claims by individuals alleging exposure to hazardous materials as a result of our products or operations. Some of these claims relate to matters occurring prior to our acquisition of businesses, and some relate to businesses we have sold. In certain cases, we are entitled to indemnification from the sellers of businesses, and in other cases, we have indemnified the buyers of businesses from us. Although we can give no assurance about the outcome of pending legal and administrative proceedings and the effect such outcomes may have on us, we believe that any ultimate liability resulting from the outcome of such proceedings, to the extent not otherwise provided for or covered by indemnity or insurance, will not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or liquidity.

ITEM 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
 
Not applicable.

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PART II

ITEM 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
Market for Our Common Shares
 
Our common shares trade on the New York Stock Exchange under the trading symbol “CVEO”.

Holders of Record
 
As of February 23, 2024, there were 21 holders of record of Civeo common shares.

Dividend Information
 
We intend to pay regular quarterly dividends on our common shares, with all future dividend payments subject to quarterly review and approval by our Board. The declaration and amount of all potential future dividends will be at the discretion of our Board and will depend upon many factors, including our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, prospects, industry conditions, capital requirements of our business, covenants associated with certain debt obligations, legal requirements, regulatory constraints, industry practice and other factors the Board deems relevant. In addition, our ability to pay cash dividends on common shares is limited by covenants in the Credit Agreement. Future agreements may also limit our ability to pay dividends, and we may incur incremental taxes if we are required to repatriate foreign earnings to pay such dividends. The amount per share of our dividend payments may be changed, or dividends may be suspended, without advance notice. The likelihood that dividends will be reduced or suspended is increased during periods of market weakness. There can be no assurance that we will continue to pay a dividend in the future.

Performance Graph

The share price performance shown on the graph is not necessarily indicative of future price performance. Information used in the graph was obtained from Research Data Group, Inc., a source believed to be reliable, but we are not responsible for any errors or omissions in such information.
The following performance graph and chart compare the cumulative total return to holders of our common shares with the cumulative total returns of the Standard & Poor's 500 Stock Index, Philadelphia OSX and with that of our peer group, for the period from December 31, 2018 to December 31, 2023. The graph and chart show the value, at the dates indicated, of $100 invested at December 31, 2018 and assume the reinvestment of all dividends, as applicable.

Our peer group consists of the following:

Badger Daylighting Ltd.Nine Energy Service, Inc.
Black Diamond Group LimitedNorth American Construction Group
Dexterra GroupOil States International, Inc.
Enerflex Ltd.Precision Drilling Corporation
Forum Energy Technologies, Inc.Select Energy Services Inc.
Matrix Service CompanyTarget Hospitality Corp.
McGrath RentCorp
Tetra Technologies, Inc.
Newpark Resources, Inc.Total Energy Services Inc.
Note: The current peer group remain unchanged for 2023 with the exception of the removal of Exterran Corporation, as they were acquired by Enerflex Ltd.


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https://cdn.kscope.io/c3514b783c031564dde2b948eec8674d-Item 5 - Performance Graph - CVEO 2023.jpg
 12/31/1812/31/1912/31/2012/31/2112/31/2212/31/23
Civeo Corporation$100.00 $90.21 $81.00 $111.71 $181.24 $136.22 
S&P 500$100.00 $131.49 $155.68 $200.37 $164.08 $207.21 
PHLX Oil Service Sector$100.00 $99.45 $57.60 $69.55 $112.31 $114.47 
Peer Group$100.00 $117.51 $104.04 $140.90 $156.26 $168.01 
 
The performance graph above is furnished and not filed for purposes of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act. The performance graph is not soliciting material subject to Regulation 14A.
 
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
 
None.

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Repurchases of Registered Equity Securities by Registrant or its Affiliates in the Fourth Quarter

The following table provides information about purchases of our common shares during the three months ended December 31, 2023.
Total Number of Shares Purchased (1)
Average Price Paid per ShareTotal number of shares purchased as part of publicly announced plans or programs Maximum number of shares that may be purchased under the plans or programs
October 1, 2023 - October 31, 202399,521 $19.84 99,521 600,769 
November 1, 2023 - November 30, 202312,900 $19.71 12,900 587,869 
December 1, 2023 - December 31, 20238,332 $21.50 8,332 579,537 
Total120,753 $19.94 120,753 579,537 

(1)    In August 2023, our Board authorized a common share repurchase program to repurchase up to 5.0% of our total common shares which were issued and outstanding at the time of approval, or 742,134 common shares, over a twelve month period. We repurchased an aggregate of 120,753 of our common shares outstanding for approximately $2.4 million during the three months ended December 31, 2023.

ITEM 6. Reserved


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ITEM 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
“Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act that are based on management’s current expectations, estimates and projections about our business operations. Read “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward Looking Statements.” Our actual results may differ materially from those currently anticipated and expressed in such forward-looking statements as a result of numerous factors, including the known material factors set forth in Item 1A. “Risk Factors” of this annual report. You should read the following discussion and analysis together with our consolidated financial statements and the notes to those statements in Item 8 of this annual report.

This section of this annual report generally discusses key operating and financial data as of and for the years ended 2023 and 2022 and provides year-over-year comparisons for such periods. For a similar discussion and year-over-year comparisons to our 2021 results, refer to "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 1, 2023.
 
Description of the Business
 
We provide a suite of hospitality services for our guests in the natural resources industry, including lodging, catering and food service, housekeeping and maintenance at accommodation facilities that we or our customers own. In many cases, we provide services that support the day-to-day operations of these facilities, such as laundry, facility management and maintenance, water and wastewater treatment, power generation, communication systems, security and logistics. We also offer development activities for workforce accommodation facilities, including site selection, permitting, engineering and design, manufacturing management and site construction, along with providing hospitality services once the facility is constructed.

We primarily operate in some of the world’s most active oil, metallurgical (met) coal, liquefied natural gas (LNG) and iron ore producing regions, where, in many cases, traditional accommodations and related infrastructure often are not accessible, sufficient or cost effective. Our customers include major and independent oil companies, mining companies, engineering companies and oilfield and mining service companies. We operate in two principal reportable business segments – Canada and Australia.
 
Basis of Presentation
 
Unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise indicates: (i) all references in these consolidated financial statements to “Civeo,” “us,” “our” or “we” refer to Civeo Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries; and (ii) all references in this annual report to “dollars” or “$” are to United States (U.S.) dollars.
 
Overview and Macroeconomic Environment
 
Historically, initial demand for our hospitality services has been driven by our customers’ capital spending programs related to the construction and development of natural resource projects and associated infrastructure, as well as the exploration for oil and natural gas. Long-term demand for our services has been driven by natural resource production, maintenance and operation of those facilities as well as expansion of those sites. In general, industry capital spending programs are based on the outlook for commodity prices, production costs, economic growth, global commodity supply/demand, estimates of resource production and the expectations of our customers' shareholders. As a result, demand for our hospitality services is largely sensitive to expected commodity prices, principally related to oil, met coal, LNG and iron ore, and the resultant impact of these commodity price expectations on our customers’ spending. Other factors that can affect our business and financial results include the general global economic environment, including inflationary pressures, supply chain disruptions and labor shortages, volatility affecting the banking system and financial markets, availability of capital to the natural resource industry and regulatory changes in Canada, Australia and other markets, including governmental measures introduced to fight climate change.

Commodity Prices

There is continued uncertainty around commodity price levels, including the impact of inflationary pressures, actions taken by Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries Plus (OPEC+) to adjust production levels, geopolitical events such as the ongoing Russia/Ukraine and Israel/Hamas conflicts and rising geopolitical risks in the Middle East, U.S. oil production levels and regulatory implications on such prices. In particular, these items could cause our Canadian oil sands and pipeline
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customers to reduce production, delay expansionary and maintenance spending and defer additional investments in their oil sands assets.

Recent Commodity Prices

Recent West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude, Western Canadian Select (WCS) crude, met coal and iron ore pricing trends are as follows:
 
 
Average Price (1)
Quarter
ended
WTI
Crude
(per bbl)
WCS
Crude
(per bbl)
Hard
Coking Coal
(Met Coal)
(per tonne)
Iron
Ore
(per tonne)
First Quarter through February 23, 2024
$74.99 $56.16 $323.93 $127.50 
12/31/202378.55 55.31 332.24 122.24 
9/30/202382.50 66.20 260.12 111.04 
6/30/202373.54 60.25 243.54 106.98 
3/31/202375.96 56.61 341.08 117.08 
12/31/202282.82 54.72 276.19 94.93 
9/30/202291.63 70.70 252.63 99.21 
6/30/2022108.77 92.89 464.61 128.80 
3/31/202295.17 82.04 474.83 129.46 
12/31/202177.31 60.84 371.95 104.88 
9/30/202170.54 57.58 258.41 164.90 
6/30/202166.19 53.27 136.44 195.97 
3/31/202158.13 46.28 127.95 159.83 
12/31/202042.63 31.34 109.37 128.24 

(1)Source: WTI crude prices are from U.S. Energy Information Administration, WCS crude prices and iron ore prices are from Bloomberg and hard coking coal prices are from IHS Markit.

WTI Crude. After reaching historic lows in early 2020 during the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, global oil prices increased to above $100 per barrel in the second quarter 2022. In the second half of 2022 and throughout 2023, oil prices declined due to (i) rising fears of a recession resulting from severe inflation and rising interest rates, (ii) resulting lower demand for oil and (iii) increasing U.S. oil production. In an effort to support the price of oil amidst demand concerns, OPEC+ countries announced additional oil production cuts through the end of 2023. These production cuts, coupled with the rising geopolitical risks in the Middle East, resulted in increased oil prices in the third quarter and early part of the fourth quarter of 2023, before reducing in the latter part of the fourth quarter back to levels consistent with the first six months of 2023.
WCS Crude. In Canada, WCS crude is the benchmark price for our oil sands customers. Pricing for WCS is driven by several factors, including the underlying price for WTI crude, the availability of transportation infrastructure (consisting of pipelines and crude by railcar), refinery blending requirements and governmental regulation. Historically, WCS has traded at a discount to WTI, creating a “WCS Differential,” due to transportation costs and capacity restrictions to move Canadian heavy oil production to refineries, primarily along the U.S. Gulf Coast. The WCS Differential has varied depending on the extent of transportation capacity availability.
Certain expansionary oil pipeline projects have the potential to both drive incremental demand for mobile assets and to improve take-away capacity for Canadian oil sands producers over the longer term. The Enbridge Line 3 replacement project was completed at the end of 2021 and the Trans Mountain Pipeline is approximately 98% complete, with mechanical completion expected to occur in the first quarter 2024, commercial service expected to begin in April 2024 and volumes expected to ramp up to full capacity by year end 2024.
WCS prices in the fourth quarter of 2023 averaged $55.31 per barrel compared to an average of $54.72 in the fourth quarter of 2022. The WCS Differential decreased from $27.39 per barrel at the end of the fourth quarter of 2022 to $19.35 at the end of the fourth quarter of 2023. As of February 23, 2024, the WTI price was $77.54 and the WCS price was $58.60, resulting in a WCS Differential of $18.94.
Met Coal. In Australia, 84% of our rooms are located in the Bowen Basin of Queensland, Australia and primarily serve met coal mines in that region. Met coal pricing and production growth in the Bowen Basin region is predominantly influenced
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by the level of global steel production, which decreased by 0.1% during 2023 compared to 2022. The decrease year-over-year was the result of weaker production in December 2023 from China, offset by stronger production throughout 2023 from both Europe and Russia. As of February 23, 2024, met coal spot prices were $311.40 per tonne. Steel output is forecast to improve marginally through 2024, with large infrastructure rollouts in a number of major economies including the U.S. and India.
Met coal prices remained over $200 per tonne during 2023, which supported existing producers, and also assisted new and expansion projects. In the last quarter of 2023, met coal prices averaged over $330 per tonne which continues to provide a positive short-term outlook for producing projects, though future investment could be impacted by the increase in the Queensland royalty scheme introduced in 2022. Analysts forecast prices to remain elevated in the near term but to fall below $300 per tonne in 2024 as supply side pressures are expected to ease and Chinese met coal imports fall following high restocking levels.

Iron Ore. Iron ore prices remained consistently above $100 per tonne throughout 2023 and averaged over $130 per tonne in late December 2023, following a sustained period of high prices. Analysts are forecasting 2024 prices to remain over $100 per tonne on average.
Other
Inflationary Pressures. During 2022 and 2023, inflationary pressures and supply chain disruptions have been, and continue to be, experienced worldwide. Price increases resulting from inflation and supply chain concerns have, and are expected to continue to have, a negative impact on our labor and food costs, as well as consumable costs such as fuel. We are managing inflation risk with negotiated service scope changes and contractual protections.
Labor Shortages. In addition to the macro inflationary impacts on labor costs noted above, during the COVID-19 pandemic, we were, and continue to be, impacted by increased staff costs as a result of hospitality labor shortages in Australia as government-imposed and voluntary social distancing and quarantining impacted travel. This labor shortage has been exacerbated by significantly reduced migration in and around Australia affecting labor availability, which has subsequently led to an increased reliance on more expensive temporary labor resources.
LNG. Our Sitka Lodge supports the LNG Canada project and related pipeline projects. From a macroeconomic standpoint, LNG demand has continued to grow, reinforcing the need for the global LNG industry to expand access to natural gas. Evolving government energy policies around the world have amplified support for cleaner energy supply, creating more opportunities for natural gas and LNG. The conflict between Russia/Ukraine and Israel/Hamas has further highlighted the need for secure natural gas supply globally, particularly in Europe. Accordingly, additional investment in LNG supply will be needed to meet the resulting expected long-term LNG demand growth.
Currently, Western Canada does not have any operational LNG export facilities. LNG Canada (LNGC), a joint venture among Shell Canada Energy, an affiliate of Shell plc (40 percent), and affiliates of PETRONAS, through its wholly-owned entity, North Montney LNG Limited Partnership (25 percent), PetroChina (15 percent), Mitsubishi Corporation (15 percent) and Korea Gas Corporation (5 percent), is currently constructing a liquefaction and export facility in Kitimat, British Columbia (Kitimat LNG Facility). The Kitimat LNG Facility is nearing completion and expected to be operational in 2024. British Columbia LNG activity and related pipeline projects are a material driver of activity for our Sitka Lodge, as well as for our mobile assets, which were contracted to serve several designated portions of the related pipeline construction activity. The majority of our contracted commitments associated with the Coastal GasLink Pipeline, the pipeline constructed to transport natural gas feedstock to LNGC, were completed in the fourth quarter of 2023.
McClelland Lake Lodge. We did not renew an expiring land lease associated with our McClelland Lake Lodge in Alberta, Canada, which expired in June 2023, in order to support our customer’s intent to mine the land where the lodge was located. In addition, the accompanying hospitality services contract at McClelland Lake Lodge expired in July 2023; however, we continued to provide hospitality services to the customer at our other owned lodges through January 31, 2024 under a short-term take-or-pay commitment. Subsequent to this date, we have continued to provide such services at our other lodges; however, not pursuant to a take-or-pay commitment. Our assets were demobilized and completely removed from the existing site in January 2024. During the third quarter of 2023, we entered into a definitive agreement to sell our McClelland Lake Lodge assets to a U.S.-based mining project for approximately C$49 million, or US$36 million. The transaction was completed in January 2024. During the third and fourth quarters of 2023, we recognized $14.2 million in demobilization costs and received $28.2 million in cash proceeds associated with the sale. We expect to recognize the remaining demobilization costs and the proceeds of the sale in the first quarter of 2024.
U.S. Business. In the first quarter of 2023, we sold our accommodation assets in Louisiana. In addition, in the second half of 2022, we sold both our U.S. wellsite services and offshore businesses. Our remaining U.S. business supports completion
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activity in the Bakken. U.S. oil completion activity will continue to be impacted by oil prices, pipeline capacity, federal energy policies and availability of capital to support exploration and production completion plans.
Foreign Currency Exchange Rates. Exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and each of the Canadian dollar and the Australian dollar influence our U.S. dollar reported financial results. Our business has historically derived the vast majority of its revenues and operating income in Canada and Australia. These revenues and profits/losses are translated into U.S. dollars for U.S. generally accepted accounting principles financial reporting purposes. The following tables summarize the fluctuations in the exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and each of the Canadian dollar and the Australian dollar:
Year Ended December 31,
20232022ChangePercentage
Average Canadian dollar to U.S. dollar$0.741$0.769(0.028)(3.6)%
Average Australian dollar to U.S. dollar$0.665$0.695(0.030)(4.3)%
As of December 31,
20232022ChangePercentage
Canadian dollar to U.S. dollar$0.756$0.7380.0182.4%
Australian dollar to U.S. dollar$0.681$0.6790.0020.2%

These fluctuations of the Canadian and Australian dollars have had and will continue to have an impact on the translation of earnings generated from our Canadian and Australian subsidiaries and, therefore, our financial results.

Capital Expenditures. We continue to monitor the global economy, commodity prices, demand for crude oil, met coal, LNG and iron ore, inflation and the resultant impact on the capital spending plans of our customers in order to plan our business activities. We currently expect that our 2024 capital expenditures will be in the range of approximately $30 million to $35 million, compared to 2023 capital expenditures of $31.6 million. Our 2023 capital expenditures included approximately $10 million related to village enhancements in Australia, for which our customer has reimbursed us, resulting in a net negligible cash flow impact in 2023 for these expenditures. We may adjust our capital expenditure plans in the future as we continue to monitor customer activity.

See “Liquidity and Capital Resources below for further discussion of 2024 and 2023 capital expenditures.

48

Results of Operations
 
Unless otherwise indicated, discussion of results for the year ended December 31, 2023 is based on a comparison with the corresponding period of 2022.
 
Results of Operations – Year Ended December 31, 2023 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2022
 
 Year Ended
December 31,
 20232022Change
 ($ in thousands)
Revenues   
Canada$352,795 $395,997 $(43,202)
Australia336,763 278,252 58,511 
Other 11,247 22,803 (11,556)
Total revenues700,805 697,052 3,753 
Costs and expenses   
Cost of sales and services   
Canada277,067 293,576 (16,509)
Australia243,011 200,944 42,067 
Other10,209 22,543 (12,334)
Total cost of sales and services530,287 517,063 13,224 
Selling, general and administrative expenses72,605 69,962 2,643 
Depreciation and amortization expense75,142 87,214 (12,072)
Impairment expense1,395 5,721 (4,326)
Gain on sale of McClelland Lake Lodge assets, net(18,590)— (18,590)
Other operating expense 479 74 405 
Total costs and expenses661,318 680,034 (18,716)
Operating income39,487 17,018 22,469 
Interest expense, net(13,005)(11,435)(1,570)
Other income 13,881 5,149 8,732 
Income before income taxes40,363 10,732 29,631 
Income tax expense(10,633)(4,402)(6,231)
Net income29,730 6,330 23,400 
Less: Net income (expense) attributable to noncontrolling interest(427)2,333 (2,760)
Net income attributable to Civeo Corporation30,157 3,997 26,160 
Less: Dividends attributable to Class A preferred shares— 1,771 (1,771)
Net income attributable to Civeo common shareholders$30,157 $2,226 $27,931 
 
We reported net income attributable to Civeo for 2023 of $30.2 million, or $2.01 per diluted share. As further discussed below, net income included (i) $28.3 million of net gains associated with the sale of the McClelland Lake Lodge in Canada and (ii) a $1.4 million pre-tax loss resulting from the impairment of fixed assets included in Impairment expense.

We reported net income attributable to Civeo for 2022 of $2.2 million, or $0.21 loss per diluted share. As further discussed below, net income included a $5.7 million pre-tax loss resulting from the impairment of fixed assets included in Impairment expense.
 
Revenues. Consolidated revenues increased $3.8 million, or 1%, in 2023 compared to 2022. This increase was primarily due to (i) increased occupancy at our Civeo owned villages in the Australian Bowen Basin and Gunnedah Basin and (ii) increased activity at our integrated services villages in Western Australia. These items were partially offset by (i) decreased mobile asset activity from pipeline projects in Canada, (ii) lower billed rooms at our Canadian lodges, (iii) reduced activity in the U.S. operations due to the sale of our wellsite and offshore businesses in the second half of 2022 and (iv) a weaker Australian and Canadian dollar relative to the U.S. dollar in 2023 compared to 2022. See the discussion of segment results of operations below for further information.
 
Cost of Sales and Services. Our consolidated cost of sales and services increased $13.2 million, or 3%, in 2023 compared to 2022. This increase was primarily due to (i) increased occupancy at our Civeo owned villages in the Australian
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Bowen Basin and Gunnedah Basin, (ii) increased activity at our integrated services villages in Western Australia and (iii) increased operating costs due to inflationary pressures in Australia. These items were partially offset by (i) reduced activity in the U.S. operations due to the sale of our wellsite and offshore businesses in the second half of 2022, (ii) lower costs related to reduced mobile asset activity in Canada, (iii) lower billed rooms at our Canadian lodges and (iv) a weaker Australian and Canadian dollar relative to the U.S. dollar in 2023 compared to 2022. See the discussion of segment results of operations below for further information. 

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses. SG&A expense increased $2.6 million, or 4%, in 2023 compared to 2022. This increase was primarily due to higher compensation expense of $2.4 million, higher information technology expense of $2.3 million and higher incentive compensation costs of $2.0 million. The increase in compensation expense was primarily due to increased staff and recruitment costs. The increase in information technology expense was related to ongoing investment in our newly implemented human capital management (HCM) system and set-up costs incurred in a cloud computing arrangement for the HCM system, which are being amortized through SG&A expense instead of depreciation and amortization expense. These items were partially offset by lower share-based compensation expense of $3.9 million and a weaker Australian and Canadian dollar relative to the U.S. dollar in 2023 compared to 2022 resulted in a $2.1 million decrease in SG&A expense. The decrease in share-based compensation expense was due to a relative decrease in our share price during 2023 compared to 2022.

Depreciation and Amortization Expense. Depreciation and amortization expense decreased $12.1 million, or 14%, in 2023 compared to 2022. The decrease was primarily due to (i) the sale of our wellsite and offshore businesses in the U.S. in the second half of 2022, (ii) certain assets becoming fully depreciated in Canada in the second quarter of 2023 and (iii) lower depreciation and amortization expense due to a weaker Australian and Canadian dollar relative to the U.S. dollar in 2023 compared to 2022. This was partially offset by the shortening of the useful lives on certain assets in Canada, including the McClelland Lake Lodge.

Impairment Expense. We recorded pre-tax impairment expense of $1.4 million in 2023 associated with long-lived assets in the U.S. We recorded pre-tax impairment expense of $5.7 million in 2022 associated with long-lived assets in the U.S. and our Australian reporting unit.

See Note 4 - Impairment Charges to the notes to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this annual report for further discussion.

Gain on Sale of McClelland Lake Lodge Assets, net. We recorded $18.6 million in 2023 related to net gains associated with the sale of the McClelland Lake Lodge. The remaining net gains related to the sale of the McClelland Lake Lodge will be recognized in the first quarter of 2024.
 
Operating Income. Operating income increased $22.5 million, or 132%, in 2023 compared to 2022 primarily due to a net gain on sale of McClelland Lake Lodge assets, higher activity levels in Australia and lower depreciation and amortization and impairment expenses in 2023 compared to 2022. These items were partially offset by reduced mobile asset activity in Canada and increased operating costs due to inflationary pressures in 2023 compared to 2022.

Interest (Expense) Income, net. Net interest expense increased $1.6 million, or 14%, in 2023 compared to 2022 primarily related to higher interest rates on credit facility borrowings during 2023 compared to 2022, partially offset by lower average debt levels.

Other Income. Consolidated other income increased $8.7 million, or 170%, in 2023 compared to 2022. Other income in 2023 included $9.7 million in reimbursements associated with the dismantlement of the McClelland Lake Lodge. In addition, 2023 included gains related to the sale of our Acadian Acres accommodation assets in the U.S. and a gain on the settlement of an ARO in Canada. Other income in 2022 included $4.7 million in gains on the sale of assets primarily related to our Kambalda village and undeveloped land holdings in Australia, our wellsite and offshore businesses in the U.S. and various mobile assets across Canada, Australia and the U.S.

Income Tax (Expense) Benefit.  Our income tax expense for 2023 totaled $10.6 million, or 26.3% of pretax income, compared to an expense of $4.4 million, or 41.0% of pretax income for 2022. Our effective tax rate for 2023 and 2022 was higher than the Canadian federal statutory rate of 15%, primarily due to pre-tax income in Australia being taxed at the higher Australian income tax rate of 30%. Additionally, due to the full valuation allowances maintained in both Canada and the U.S., no tax expense or benefit was recorded related to pre-tax income in Canada and the U.S. In 2023, tax expense in Canada and the U.S. was offset by a valuation allowance release of $1.7 million and $0.8 million, respectively. In 2022, tax expense in Canada
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was offset by a valuation allowance release of $0.6 million and the tax benefit in the U.S. was offset by an increase to the valuation allowance of $1.0 million.

Other Comprehensive Income (Loss). Other comprehensive income increased $28.0 million in 2023 compared to 2022 primarily as a result of foreign currency translation adjustments due to changes in the Canadian and Australian dollar exchange rates compared to the U.S. dollar. The Canadian dollar exchange rate compared to the U.S. dollar increased 2.4% in 2023 compared to a 6.4% decrease in 2022. The Australian dollar exchange rate compared to the U.S. dollar increased 0.2% in 2023 compared to a 6.5% decrease in 2022.
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Segment Results of Operations – Canadian Segment
 
 Year Ended
December 31,
 20232022Change
Revenues ($ in thousands)   
Accommodation revenue (1)
$266,926 $279,455 $(12,529)
Mobile facility rental revenue (2)
61,899 96,400 (34,501)
Food service and other services revenue (3)
23,970 20,142 3,828 
Total revenues$352,795 $395,997 $(43,202)
Cost of sales and services ($ in thousands)   
Accommodation cost$195,843 $204,592 $(8,749)
Mobile facility rental cost49,073 60,055 (10,982)
Food service and other services cost21,821 18,372 3,449 
Indirect other cost10,330 10,557 (227)
Total cost of sales and services$277,067 $293,576 $(16,509)
Gross margin as a % of revenues21.5 %25.9 %(4.4)%
Average daily rate for lodges (4)  
$97 $100 $(3)
Total billed rooms for lodges (5)
2,710,784 2,759,521 (48,737)
Average Canadian dollar to U.S. dollar$0.741 $0.769 $(0.028)

(1)Includes revenues related to lodge rooms and hospitality services for owned rooms for the periods presented.
(2)Includes revenues related to mobile assets for the periods presented.
(3)Includes revenues related to food service, laundry and water and wastewater treatment services for the periods presented.
(4)Average daily rate is based on billed rooms and accommodation revenue.
(5)Billed rooms represents total billed days for owned assets for the periods presented.

Our Canadian segment reported revenues in 2023 that were $43.2 million, or 11%, lower than 2022. The weakening of the average exchange rate for the Canadian dollar relative to the U.S. dollar by 3.6% in 2023 compared to 2022 resulted in a $13.9 million period-over-period decrease in revenues. Excluding the impact of the weaker Canadian exchange rate, the revenue decrease was driven by (i) reduced mobile asset activity from pipeline projects and (ii) lower billed rooms at our lodges.

Our Canadian segment cost of sales and services decreased $16.5 million, or 6%, in 2023 compared to 2022. The weakening of the average exchange rate for the Canadian dollar relative to the U.S. dollar by 3.6% in 2023 compared to 2022 resulted in a $10.8 million period-over-period decrease in cost of sales and services. Excluding the impact of the weaker Canadian exchange rate, the decrease in cost of sales and services was driven by lower costs related to the reduced mobile asset activity and reduced activity at certain lodges.

Our Canadian segment gross margin as a percentage of revenues decreased from 25.9% in 2022 to 21.5% in 2023. This decrease was primarily driven by reduced margins from our mobile asset activity as certain higher margin components were recognized over the initial contract terms through late 2022, with 2023 representing mobile camp activity winding down. In addition, mobile camp demobilization costs of approximately $6.5 million were incurred in the second half of 2023.
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Segment Results of Operations – Australian Segment
 
 Year Ended
December 31,
 20232022Change
Revenues ($ in thousands)
Accommodation revenue (1)
$177,834 $152,714 $25,120 
Food service and other services revenue (2)
158,929 125,538 33,391 
Total revenues$336,763 $278,252 $58,511 
Cost of sales ($ in thousands)
Accommodation cost$85,461 $73,325 $12,136 
Food service and other services cost148,599 119,957 28,642 
Indirect other cost8,951 7,662 1,289 
Total cost of sales and services$243,011 $200,944 $42,067 
Gross margin as a % of revenues27.8 %27.8 %— %
Average daily rate for villages (3)
$75 $75 $— 
Total billed rooms for villages (4)
2,371,763 2,024,068 347,695 
Australian dollar to U.S. dollar$0.665 $0.695 $(0.030)

(1)Includes revenues related to village rooms and hospitality services for owned rooms for the periods presented.
(2)Includes revenues related to food service and other services, including facilities management, for the periods presented.
(3)Average daily rate is based on billed rooms and accommodation revenue.
(4)Billed rooms represents total billed days for owned assets for the periods presented.

Our Australian segment reported revenues in 2023 that were $58.5 million, or 21%, higher than 2022. The weakening of the average exchange rate for Australian dollars relative to the U.S. dollar by 4.3% in the 2023 compared to 2022 resulted in a $14.9 million period-over-period decrease in revenues. Excluding the impact of the weaker Australian exchange rate, the increase in the Australian segment was driven by increased activity at our Civeo owned villages in the Bowen Basin and Gunnedah Basin and our integrated services villages in Western Australia.

Our Australian segment cost of sales and services increased $42.1 million, or 21%, in 2023 compared to 2022. The weakening of the average exchange rate for Australian dollars relative to the U.S. dollar by 4.3% in 2023 compared to 2022 resulted in a $10.8 million period-over-period decrease in cost of sales and services. Excluding the impact of the weaker Australian exchange rate, the increase in cost of sales and services was largely driven by increased occupancy at our Civeo owned villages in the Bowen Basin and Gunnedah Basin and our integrated services villages in Western Australia and increased operating costs due to inflationary pressures.

Our Australian segment gross margin as a percentage of revenues remained constant at 27.8% in both 2023 and 2022. The increased revenue contribution in 2023 from our integrated services business, which has a service only-business model and therefore generates lower overall margins than our accommodation business, had a negative impact on margins in 2023. This negative impact was offset by improved margins at Civeo owned villages in the Bowen Basin and Gunnedah Basin as a result of increased activity and improved margins in the integrated services business due to reduced costs realized from our inflation mitigation plan in the year.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Our primary liquidity needs are to fund capital expenditures, which in the past have included expanding and improving our hospitality services, developing new lodges and villages and purchasing or leasing land, to pay dividends, to repurchase common shares and for general working capital needs. In addition, capital has been used to repay debt and fund strategic business acquisitions. In the future, capital may be required to move lodges from one site to another. Historically, our primary sources of funds have been available cash, cash flow from operations, borrowings under our Credit Agreement and proceeds from equity issuances. In the future, we may seek to access the debt and equity capital markets from time to time to raise additional capital, increase liquidity, fund acquisitions or refinance debt.

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The following summarizes our material future cash requirements at December 31, 2023, and the effect such obligations are expected to have on our liquidity and cash flow over the next five years (in thousands):  
 TotalLess Than 1
Year
1 – 3 Years3 – 5 YearsMore
Than 5
Years
Debt maturities$65,554 $— $65,554 $— $— 
Interest payments(1)
10,236 6,031 4,205 — — 
Purchase obligations11,064 11,064 — — — 
Non-cancelable lease obligations15,713 4,563 6,531 4,065 554 
Asset retirement obligations – expected cash payments68,645 2,576 2,066 2,365 61,638 
Total contractual cash obligations$171,212 $24,234 $78,356 $6,430 $62,192 
 
(1)Interest payments due under the Credit Agreement, which matures on September 8, 2025; based on an interest rate of 9.2% for Canadian revolver borrowings.

Our debt obligations at December 31, 2023 are reflected in our consolidated balance sheet, which is a part of our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this annual report. We have not entered into any material leases subsequent to December 31, 2023.

The following table summarizes our consolidated liquidity position as of December 31, 2023 and 2022 (in thousands): 
December 31,
 20232022
Lender commitments$200,000 $200,000 
Borrowings against revolving credit capacity(65,554)(102,505)
Outstanding letters of credit(1,353)(1,365)
Unused availability133,093 96,130 
Cash and cash equivalents3,323